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19 Cards in this Set

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3R.3 An 18 yr old high school student is referred to you for persy assessmt due to behal probs. Which of the following assessmt instrumts wd be most approp to use?
a. MMPI-A
b. MMPI-2
c. WAIS-III
d. Halstead-Reitan
3R.3 A - MMPI-A is recommended for use w/ ages 14 to 18, while the MMPI-2 is recommended for indivs 18 yrs and older, may have left you a bit stumped about which to use for an 18-yr-old. The MMPI-A manual acknowledges this period of overlap and recommends choosing the instrumt on a "case by case basis," but it also suggests using the MMPI-A for high school students. Furthermore, in a recent study cfing the MMPI-A and MMPI-2 admined to 18 yr olds, the researchers concluded that the MMPi-2 tended to overpathologize and the MMPI-A tended to underpathologize. Due, in part, to concern w/ overpathologizing indivs, the researchers recommended using the MMPI-A w/ 18 yr olds. But to optimally gain sensitivity to psychopathology, they also recommended using T-score cutoffs of 60 instead of 65 on the MMPI-A.
3R.8 Medications used to treat sxs of PD block the effects of:
a. DA
b. 5HT
c. ACh
d. GABA
3R.8 C - PD is characterized by insufficient amts of DA; thus, med tx seeks to inc DA not block it. Another tx strategy is to block ACh receptors to help restore the normal balance b/w DA and ACh. In PD, the loss of DA results in rel. excess of ACh. Meds aim to restore the balance by incing DA and/or blocking ACh receptors.
3R.19 Which of the following is true regarding Sleep Terror DO in children?
a. It usu begs b/w 4 and 12 yrs and follows a chronic course
b. It usu begs b/w 4 and 12 yrs and resolves spontaneously during adolescence
c. The freqy of episodes remains constant throughout the course of the DO
d. It occurs 3 times more often in females than males
3R.19 B - According to DSM-IV-TR, Sleep Terror DO is characterized by "the repeated occurrence of sleep terrors, that is, abrupt awakenings from sleep usu. beg w/ a panicky scream or cry." It usu begs b/w 4 and 12 yrs and resolves spontaneously during adolescence. The freqy of episodes varies over time. Among children, it is somewhat more common in males than in females.
3R.22 According to Beck, a depressed man is most likely to believe that:
a. the world is unfair, his future is hopeless, but he is a good person
b. he is worthless, his future is hopeless, but he is a good person
c. he is worthless, his future is hopeless, and the world is unfair
d. he is worthless, the world is unfair, but his future is hopeful
3R.22 C - Deped ppl tend to distort their perceptions and interp events from a negative perspective. Beck referred to the "cog triad" which consists of negative thoughts about the self, future, and the world. Choice C best reps the cognitive triad.
3R.35 The ability to understd that changing an object's appearance doesn't change the object's phys. qualities typically dvps during yrs:
a. 0 to 2
b. 2 to 6
c. 7 to 10
d. 11 to 13
3R.35 C - Conservation is the ability to understand that changing an object's appearance doesn't change the object's phys. qualities. For example, water poured from a tall thin glass into a short thin glass will be conserved, or understood to be the same amt of water. Conservation dvps during the concrete operations stage (7 to 12 yrs). Note that there might be slight variations b/w age ranges that you have studies and test qns. The most correct choice is 7 to 10 yrs, which falls w/in the 7 to 12 yr range. Choice D, 11 to 13 yrs, overlaps b/w the high end of concrete operations and the low end of formal operations (12 onward) - which is not as gd a choice for the typical dvpt of concrete operations.
3R.46 Which of the following stms is not true regarding concurrent validity?
a. It is used to est criterion-related validity
b. It is approp for tests designed to assess a person's future status on a criterion
c. It is obted by collecting predr and criterion scores at about the same time
d. It indics the extent to which a test yields the same results as other measures of the same phenomenon
3R.46 B - There are 2 ways to est the criterion-related validity of a test; concurrent and predictive validation. Concurrent validation - predr and criterion scores are collected at about same time; in predictive validation - predr scores are collected 1st and criterion data are collected at some future pt. Concurrent validity indics the extent to which a test yields the same results as other measures of the same phenomenon. e.g., if you dvpted a new test for depn, you might admin it along with the BDI and measure concurrent validity of the 2 tests.
3R.50 For children w/ Enuresis (Not due to a GMC), the more likely co-dx is:
a. Major Depn
b. Sepn Anxiety DO
c. Sleepwalking or Sleep Terror DO
d. Specific or Social Phobia
3R.50 C - According to DSM-IV-TR, although prevalence rates of some DOs are higher among children with Enuresis, most do not have co-existing DO. DSM lists Encopresis, Sleepwalking DO, and Sleep Terror DO as other DOs that are most likely to be present. (Note that Sleepwalking and Sleep Terror DOs are the only DOs given that occur during sleep, which is also usu case w/ Enuresis.)
3R.53 An external locus of control and internal locus of responsibility are characteristic of:
a. a self-confident person
b. a hostile person
c. a depressed person
d. most minorities
3R.53 C - Locus of control/locus of responsibility model adds another elemt to learned helplessness model in regards to depn. As you know, learned helplessness model views deped ppl as making internal, stable, and global attribns to neg events. However, the "internal" factor in the helplessness model refers only to locus of responsibility. As seen in cog distortion called "personalization," a deped person uses an internal locus of responsibility to blame him or herself for neg events. Paradoxically, deped ppl also feel lack of control over events, that is, they have an external locus of control - seeing external factors such as fate, luck, or other ppl as the cause of what happens to them. A self-confident person (A) is most likely to have internal locus of control and respy. A hostile person (B) is more likely to blame others - wd have external locus of respy. And contrary to D, only marginalized minorities are likely to have external locus of control and internal locus of respy.
3R.55 Withdrawal from morphine dependence is most likely to result in:
a. sedation
b. pupillary constriction
c. constipation
d. diarrhea
3R.55 D - According to DSM-IV-TR, sxs of opiate w/drawal incl: dysphoric mood; nausea or vomiting; muscle aches; lacrimation or rhinorrhea (runny eyes and nose); pupillary dilation, pilorerection (gooseflesh), or sweating; diarrhea; yawning; fever; and insomnia. Other choices (sedation, pupillary constriction, and constipation) are signs of opiate intoxication.
3R.76 According to the theory underlying Gestalt therapy, introjection involves:
a. viewing other ppl's emotions as one's own
b. failing to dvpt a healthy "social interest"
c. blaming oneself for the probs of others
d. interping the values of the larger society as one's own
3R.76 D - Introjection involves absorbing the values or behs of others, incl the lger society, w/out really understding or assimilating those values or behs. Introjection reps a disturbance in the boundary b/w self and others - the person does or believes things that are not reflective of a self that is clearly distinct from others in the environmt. Choice A is incorrect because it is primarily values, not emotions, that are absorbed from the environmt in Gestalt therapy's view of introjection.
3R.83 In order to inc the chances that Mary Ann is altruistic it wd help if she
a. has younger siblings
b. comes from a large extended family
c. is inherently wealthy
d. has at least one older sibling
3R.83 A - Whiting and Whiting's study of 6 cultures found that respy for the welfare of others was most important factor in dvpt of altruism.
B - incorrect; Cohen's study found altruism linked more to a nuclear than an extended family structure.
3R.114 You have been retained by the court to make a recommendation concerning custody of a 4 yr old girl. You have met w/ the mother on 2 occasions and also admined some psycal tests. You have completed a ph interview w/ the father who lives out of state. In reporting to the court, you shd:
a. explain that you cannot present any data
b. recommend custody go to the parent you have deted is most competent to the parent.
c. present the results of your eval but refrain from making a recommendation.
d. make a recommendation, but note that your eval of the father was incomplete.
3R.114 C - Std 7.02 states that "psycs make sure that any conclusions they draw or recs they make are based on adeq and complete info. If a psyc cannot eval everyone, the ethical course of action is to present the results of the eval but refrain from making a specific recommendation." A phone conversation is not a psycal eval. D is wrong because if you cd not make a complete eval, why make a recommendation?
3R.119 Your friend Bill has been involved in a motorcycle accident that resulted in a head injury. His neurologist has indiced that Bill is experiencing aphasia. As a knowledgeable psychologist, you wd give Bill all the following news about his injury except:
a. because his language loss is not severe, he has a better chance of recovery
b. the greatest amt of recovery will occur in the next 3 mths
c. since he is right-handed he will probably exhibit milder aphasia
d. he is lucky to be 16 instead of 66
3R.119 C - oppos. is true. Left-handers exhibit milder aphasia, and recover more thoroughly and more quickly than right-handers. Course of recovery from aphasia due to head injury is reled to several factors incl age at time of injury - esp. during first 3 months.
3R.139 Your client has been injured in a car wreck and now reports that he has "lost his sense of touch." At what level has the spinal injury most likely occurred?
a. L1
b. S1 to S3
c. C8 to T1
d. T2 to T3
3R.139 C - T1 is first level of thoracic spinal cord and innervates hand and arm, C8 innvervates the ring and little fingers. L1 (answer A) refers to lumbar region which contains the nerves that affect the hip, thigh, and leg. S1 to S3 (B) is referring to sacral region which innervates parts of ft and leg. T2 to T3 is referring to lower thoracic region which innervates the trunk. It wd be gd to know that the SC is divided into 4 regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral.
3R.169 To det whether or not the doctrine of comparable worth is lived up to in an org, one wd rely on
a. the perceptions of employees.
b. a job description.
c. a job eval.
d. a task analysis.
3R.169 C - The doctrine of comparable worth states that wkers (in partic, men and women) shd get equal pay for perfing jobs that have equiv worth. A job eval is a method of deting the worth or value of jobs in an org. Thus, it is the best answer to this qn, because it wd be a way of cfing the value of diff jobs. Note that many critics believe that current methods of job eval contain inherent gender biases. Stats clearly show that women earn less than men, and some believe that one reason for this is that job eval methods underavlue the wk that women perform.
3R.187 Which of the following is the best description of flooding?
a. Exposure to a prevly conditioned stimulus in the absence of a real aversive stimulus.
b. Gradual in-vivo exposure to the feared stimulus while incing negative responses.
c. Imaginal exposure to a prevly conditioned stimulus while conducting guided imagery.
d. Exposure to an aversive stimulus at its maximum intensity while the person is engaging in an undesirable act.
3R.187 A - In flooding, a person is exposed to a feared stimulus in order to exting. the fear. The theory underlying the technique is that the feared stimulus was prevly a conditioned stimulus paried w/ an unconditioned aversive stimulus that naturally produces fear.
3R.189 A %ile ranke is
a. a norm-referenced score, but not a std score
b. a std score, but not a norm-referenced score
c. a std score and a norm-referenced score
d. neither a std score nor a norm-referenced score
3R.189 A - Although std score is a norm-referenced score, and a %ile is a norm-referenced score, a %ile is not interpred in std dev units, so it is not a std score.
3R.194 What is the least helpful suggestion you can give to parents when they are going through a divorce or marital conflict?
a. avoid exposing the children to any conflicts
b. allow the children to partic in decisions regarding visitation rights
c. in the long run, it is better for the children if you divorce than if you remain in an unhappy marriage
d. remarry as soon as possible
3R.194 D - Research IDed no. of factors assoced w/ poorer adjmt in children whose parents divorce. For instance, rapid remarriage of one or both parents is predictive of poorer adjmt. The other suggestions are likely to be helpful (or at worst, benign): exposure to parental conflict, parental continuance of an unhappy marriage, and failure to allow children to est. a relnship w/ the noncustodial parent are all factors assoced w/ poorer long-term adjmt in children of divorce.
3R.2 Which of the following smoking cessation txs is least effective for LT abstinence?
a. hypnosis
b. acupuncture
c. aversive techniques
d. nicotine replacement
C - Nicotine repl interventions (e.g., nicotine gum or patch) have not been found effective over LT unless combined w/ other tx interventions. In a meta-analysis based on over 600 smoking cessation studies, the mean quit rate (based on ST and LT rates) for hypnosis = .36; acupuncture = .30; aversive techniques = .27; nicotine gum = .16; and control group = .06. Another meta-analysis that addresssed the combo of nicotine gum w/ other tx interventions but cfed ST to LT outcomes also concluded that nicotine gum by itself is not v. effective in LT, but is effective when combined w/ other tx interventions.