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86 Cards in this Set

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bay
an area of water that is partly surrounded by land
caldera
the large hole formed at the top of a volcano when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses
cinder cone
a steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain made of volcano ash and cinders piled up around a volcano's opening
cleavage
the breaking up of mineral along a smooth flat surface
continental shelf
the gently sloping underwater part of a continent
continental slope
the sharp drop at the edge of the underwater part of a continent
core
the center of the earth; made of solid metals
crater
a bowl-shaped structure at the top of a volcano or on a planet or moon
crest
the highest part of a wave
crust
earth's outer layer; made of rock
crystal
a solid material found in nature that has straight edges and flat sides; can also break into pieces with straight edges and flat sides
continental drift
an early theory that described the movement of continents, later was replaced by the plate tectonic theory
deposition
the process in which materials are deposited during erosion
earth science
the study of earth and space
earthquake
a shaking of the earth's crust caused by slabs of rock moving against each other deep in the earth's crust
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
elevation
the land's height above sea level. also called altitude
epicenter
the point of the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
equator
an imaginary line that circles the earth halfway between the north and south poles
erosion
the movement of weathered materials by water, ice, or wind
estuary
a place where fresh water from a river empties into the ocean and mixes with it
extrusive
igneous rock that forms from lava on the earth's surface
fault
a crack in the earth's crust
fault-block mountains
mountains that formed when blocks of solid rock slid upward or downward along a fault
folded mountains
mountains that formed when land was squeezed together
fossil
the remains or traces of an organism that lived a long time ago
fracture
the breaking of a mineral along a rough or jagged surface
glacier
a large body of moving ice that stays frozen all year
geologist
a person who studies earth
groundwater
water that collects underground in cracks and spaces in rock
icecaps
sheets of ice that covers areas around the north and south poles
igneous rock
rock that is formed from cooled magma or lava
inner core
the center of the earth; made of metals
intertidal zone
the part of the land that is covered and uncovered by tides every day
lake
a large body of still water surrounded by land
landfill
a place where garbage is dumped
landform
a natural structure on the earth's surface
landslide
the sudden downhill movement of a huge mass of rock, soil, and mud
lava
melted rock that flows out of the ground onto the earth's surface
lithosphere
earth's rocky surface
magma
melted rock below the earth's surface
mantle
the earth layer below the lithosphere(crust). made of melted rock
mass movememt
a sudden downhill movement of rock or soil, such as a landslide
metamorphic rock
a rock that is formed when a sedimentary rock undergoes extreme heat and pressure
mineral
a solid natural material that has a crystal form and its own set of properties
normal fault
a crack in the earth's crust where a block or rock dropped downward
ocean
the vast body of saltwater that covers almost 3/4 of the earth's surface
outer core
the earth layer below the mantle, made of liquid metals
pangea
a continent that existed millions of years ago and was made of all of today's separate continents joined together
petrified fossil
a fossil that formed when the hard parts of an organism were replaced by minerals
plate
a huge piece of earth's crust that moves very slowly
plate boundaries
a crack in the lithosphere (earth's crust) where two of earth's plates meet
plate tectonic theory
a theory that explains how part of earth's crust has moved over time
pond
a small still body of water surrounded by land
quarry
a place where rocks are taken from the earth to be used for building
reverse fault
a crack in the earth's crust where rock was pushed up`
rift valley
a deep valley that runs down the middle of a mid-ocean ridge
river
a wide body of slow moving water
rock
a solid mixture of minerals that formed in the earth's crust
rock cycle
the process of rocks changing into other kinds of rock
sanitary landfills
a place where garbage is buried, packed down, and covered with soil; keeps harmful chemicals and gases from leaking out
sedimentary rock
rock that formed when sediments were pressed and cemented together
sediments
bits of rock, soil, sand, and the remains of organisms
seismograph
a scientific tool that measures the magnitude of earthquakes
shear
stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
shoreline
the area where the ocean meets the land
stream
a narrow body of flowing water
strike-slip fault
a crack in the earth's crust where blocks of rock move sideways past each other
trace fossil
a footprint, a track, or burrow made by an organism and preserved in rock
trench
a steep crack in the ocean floor
tributary
a stream or smaller river that flows into a larger river
vent
an opening in a volcano that magma, gases, and other materials come out of
volcanic island chain
a group of islands made of volcanoes that built up from the ocean floor
volcano
a mountain built up from hardened lava, rocks, and ash that erupted out of the earth
weathering
the breaking down and wearing away of rock
ancient seas
prehistoric seas
atmosphere
the air that surrounds earth
carbon cycle
the movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen between organisms and the air
inexhaustible
something that never runs out
lunar
moon
nitrogen cycle
the movement of nitrogen between organisms and their surroundings
nonrenewable resources
resources that nature cannot replace quickly enough to meet people's needs
orbit
the path that one object in space takes around another object in space
precipitation
water that falls to earth's surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail
renewable
things that can be made again and again
water cycle
the change of water from one state to another as it moves between earth's surface and the atmosphere