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18 Cards in this Set

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Name the three areas where volcanoes occur.
Hot spots, converging plate boundaries, diverging plate boundaries.
Which stress force pulls and stretches rock apart?
Tension.
Which earthquake rating system measures the total energy released duing an earthquake?
Moment Magnitude Scale
Name the types of seismic waves in order of fastest to slowest.
P waves, S waves, surface waves
Why is tsunami created?
When water is displaced by an undersea earthquake.
Describe liquefaction.
When an earthquakes shaking turns loose soil into mud. Buildings can sink into the mud.
Describe a sheild volcano.
A wide, gently sloping volcano made from layers of hardened lava. This lava is thin and fluid.
Any change in the volume or shape of the Earth's crust is called
Deformation
Which two minerals make volcanic soil so fertile?
Phosphorus and potassium.
Define FAULT.
The point beneath Earth's surface where crust breaks, triggering and earthquake.
Describe the three stages of a volcano's life.
Active - is erupting or shows signs that it may erupt.
Dormant -is not active but MAY become active in the future.
Extinct - is unlikely to erupt again.
Where does magma collect inside the volcano?
A magma chamber.
Name the three types of stress on rock that cause deformation.
Shearing, tension, and compression.
Magma is thick and sticky when it contains a lot of ___________.
Silica.
Describe what is happening at a hot spot.
A hot spot is an area where magma melts through the crust to erupt as a volcano.
What is the Ring of Fire?
A belt of volcanoes that rim the Pacific Ocean.
Identify and explain the factors that influence the explosiveness of a volcano.
1) water content - the higher the water content, the more explosive 2) gas content - the higher the gas content, the more explosive the euption 3) silica content - the higher the silica content, the more explosive 4) temperature - the lower the temperaure, the more explosive.
How do geologists locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
By drawing circles to show the distance from three seismograph stations. The point where the circles meet is where the epicenter is located.