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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
epicenter
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
seismograph
A device that records ground movement caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth.
anticline
An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust.
Richter scale
A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph.
magnitude
The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves as they move through Earth.
fault
A break in the Earth's crust where slabs or rocks slip past each other.
syncline
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust.
normal fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward, caused by tension in the crust.
stress
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
folds
A bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed.
earthquake
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath the Earth's crust.
tension
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
seismic waves
A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
shearing
Stress that pushes a mass or rock in opposite directions.
Mercalli scale
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause.
strike-slip fault
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion.
S wave
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side.
moment magnitude scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake.
reverse fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward.
hanging wall
The block or rock that forms the upper half of a fault.
deformation
A change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust.
focus
The point beneath the Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake.
compression
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
fault-block mountain
A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block or rock.
footwall
The block or rock that forms the lower half of a fault.
surface waves
A type of seismic wave that forms when P and S waves reach the Earth's surface.
P wave
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands on the ground.
plateau
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.