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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Luster
the physical property of a mineral that describes how light is reflected from its surface
Crystal
a solid having a distinctive shape because its atoms are arranged in repeating patterns
Gem
a valuable mineral highly prized because it is rare and beautiful
Cleavage
the physical property of a mineral that causes it to break along smooth, flat surfaces
Mineral
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a distinct internal structure and chemical compositions
Hardness
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
Titanium
durable, lightweight metal obtained from minerals such as ilmenite or rutile
Magma
hot melted rock material beneath earth’s surface
Fracture
the physical property of a mineral that causes it to break with rough or jagged edges
Silicate
minerals containing silicon and oxygen, usually with other elements; the largest group of minerals
Ore
a mineral containing a useful substance, such as a metal, that can be mined for a profit
Streak
the color of a mineral when it is powered; usually observed by rubbing the mineral on a ceramic plate
Rock
earth material made of a mixture of one or more minerals, glass, mineraloids, or organic matter
Foliated
a type of metamorphic rock created when mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel bands
Compaction
a sedimentary rock-forming process that occurs when layers of small sedimentary become compressed by weight of layers above them
Extrusive
igneous rock that form when magma extrudes onto earths surface and cools as lava; have a fine-grained texture
Congeneration
process in which a power plant uses both the electrical and thermal energy produced by the plant
Granite
light-colored igneous rock formed from magma rich in silicon and oxygen
Waste coal
large piles of poor-quality coal lying near abandoned coal mines
Rock cycle
the process by which, over many of years, earth materials form and change back and forth among igneous rock, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks
Lava
molten materials from a volcano flowing onto earth’s surface
Metamorphic Rock
Rock formed from sedimentary, igneous, or other metamorphic rock due to increase in heat or pressure
Intrusive
Igneous rocks formed when magma cools below earth’s surface; generally have large mineral grains
Igneous rock
Rock formed by the cooling and hardening of molten material from a volcano or from deep inside earth
Sediment
Loose materials such as rock fragment of rocks, mineral grains, and bits of plants and animals that have been transported by wind, water, or glaciers
Nonfoliated
A type of metamorphic rock created when mineral grains change, grow, and rearrange, but don’t form bands
Cementation
A sedimentary rock-forming process in which large sediments are glued together by minerals deposited between the sediments
Basaltic
Dark-colored, dense igneous rocks that form from magma rick in iron and magnesium
Sedimentary rock
Rock formed when fragments of rocks, minerals and/or organic matter are compated or cemented together or preciiate out of solution