Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The physical properties of a mineral are largely due to its
1 volume
2 organic composition
*3 internal arrangement of atoms*
4 melting point
Why do diamond and graphite have different physcial properties, even though they are both composed entirely of the element carbon?
1 only diamond contains radioactive carbon
2 only graphite consists of organic material
*3 The minerals have different arrangements of carbon atoms.*
4 The minerals have undergone different amounts of weathering.
According to the ESRT, what are the four most abundant elements, by volume, in the Earth's crust?
*1 oxygen, potassium, sodium, and calcium*
2 hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and potassium
3 aluminum, iron, silicon, and magnesium
4 aluminum, calcium, hydrogen, and iron
Two mineral samples have different physical properties but each contains silicate tetrahedrons as its basic structural unit. What statement about the two mineral smaples must be true?
1 They have the same density.
2 They are similar in appearence.
*3 They contain silicon and oxygen.*
4 They are the same mineral
Which mineral has a different color in its powdered form then in its original form?
(diagram on page 53)
*1 pyrite*
2 graphite
3 kaolinite
4 magnetite
Which mineral contains iron, has a metallic luster, is hard, and has the same color and strak?
(diagram on page 53)
1 biotite mica
2 galena
3 kaolinite
*4 magnetie*
Which mineral would most likely be weathered (broken up) the most after being placed in a container and shaken for 10 minutes?
(diagram on page 53)
1 pyrite
2 quartz
3 magnetite
*4 kaolinite*
Which mineral is an ore of iron and has a characteristic reddish brown streak?
(diagram on page 53)
1 magnetite
2 pyrite
*3 hematite*
4 olivine
Which observation about an igneous rock would support the inference that the rock cooled slowly underground?
1 The rock has well-defined layers.
*2 The rock has large crystals.*
3 The rock is about 50% feldspar.
4 The rock is light in color and low in density.
Most igneous rocks contain
1 recrystallized minerals
*2 intergrown crystals*
3 sediments
4 fossils
Most igneous rocks form by which processes?
*1 melting and solidfication*
2 heat and pressure
3 erosion adn deposition
4 compaction and cementation
Which graph best represents the relationship between the length of time molten magma takes to cool and the size of the crystals in the rock formed by magma?
(diagram on page 58)
What is the principal factor that determines the size of the crystals that will result when hot molten rock material (magma) cools to form igneous rock?
*1 the rate at which the magma cools*
2 the amount of aluminum in the magma
3 the percentage of felspar in the magma
4 the density of the magma
The igneous rock Obsidian's glassy texture indicates that it formed from a magma that cooled
1 slowly deep below Earth's surface
2 slowly, on the Earth's surface
3 quickly, deep below Earth's surface
*4 quickly on Earth's surface*
What two igneous rock could have the same mineral compostion?
1 rhyolite and diorite
2 pumice and scoria
3 peridotite and andesite
*4 gabbro and basalt*
According to the ESRT which is a fine-grained igneous rock made up primarily of pyroxene and plagiolclase feldspar?
1 gabbro
*2 basalt*
3 granite
4 rhyolite
Sand collected at a beach contains a mixture of pyroxene, olivine, amphibole, and plagioclase felspar. According to the ESRT, the rock from which this mixture of sand came is best described as
*1 dark colored with a mafic composition*
2 dark colored with a felsic compostion
3 light colored with a mafic composition
4 light colored with a felsic composition
According to the ESRT rhyolite and granite are alike in that they both are
1 fine grained
2 dark colored
3 mafic
*4 felsic*
According to the ESRT, which characteristic determines whether a rock is classified as a shale, a siltstone, a sandstone, or a conglomerate?
1 the absolute age of the sediments within the rock
2 the mineral compossiton of the sediments within the rock
*3 the particle size of the sediments within the rock*
4 the density of the sediments within the rock
According to the ESRT some sedimentary rocks form as the direct results of theq
1 solidification of molten magma
2 freezing of material
3 melting of minerals
* 4 cementation of rock frangments*
According to the ESRT which sedimentary rock is composed of fragmented skeletons and shells of sea organisms compacted and cemented together?
1 shale
*2 limestone*
3 sandstone
4 gypsum
Which statement correctly describes the distribution of sedimentary rocks on Earht?
1 Sedimentary rock layeers are thickest in the middle of the oceans.
2 Sedimentary rocks extend down into Earth's crust as far as the inner core
3 Sedimentary rocks are usually located in volcanic regions.
*4 Sedimentary rocks usually form a thin layer over large areas of the continents.
According to the ESRT. which is a sedimentary rock that forms as a result of precipitation from seawater?
1 conglomerate
*2 gypsum*
3 basalt
4 shale
One similarity between a sand pile and sandstone is that they
1 contain a cementing agent
2 always contain fossils
3 have crystalline structure
*4 are composed of sediments*
Which property best describes a rock which has formed from sediments?
1 crystalline structure
2 distorted structure
3 banding or zoning of minerals
*4 fragmented particles arranged in layers*
Which rock is formed when rock fragments are deposited and cemented together?
1 dolostone
*2 sandstone*
3 rhyolite
4 gabbro
Which is most likely a nonsedimentary rock?
1 a rock containing fossil shells
2 a rock showing ripple marks and cracks
3 a rock composed of layers of gravel cemented together
*4 a rock consisting of large intergrown crystals*
Rock layers showing ripple marks, cross-bedding, and fossil shells indicate that these layers were formed
1 from solidfication of molten material
2 from deposites left by s continental ice sheet
3 by high temperature and pressure
*4 by deposition of sediments in a shallow sea*
Which diagram best represents a sample of the metamorphic tock gneiss?
(diagram on page 66)
The metamorphism of a sandstone rock will cause rock
1 to be melted
2 to contain more fossils
*3 to become dense*
4 to occupy a greater volume
Which properties are most often used to distinguish metamorphic rocks from other kinds of rocks?
1 organic compositon and density
*2 banding and distortion of structure*
3 mineral and color hardness
4 layering and range of particle sizes
The recrystallization of unmelted material under high pressure and temperature results in
*1 metamorphic rock*
2 sedimentary rock
3 igneous rock
4 volcanic rock
What characteristic of rocks tends to increase as the rock are metamorphosed?
*1 density*
2 volume
3 permeabilty
4 number of fossils present
According to the ESRT which sequence of events occur in the formation of sedimentary rock?
(diagram on page 68)
Why is the conglomerate rock shown below good evidence that rocks form from other rocks?
(diagram on page 69)
*1 The conglomerate contains some nonsedimentary rock fragments.*
2 The conglomerate was formed from material that was buried deep underground.
3 The conglomerate's pebbles are all weathering at the same rate.
4 The conglomerate was formed by the cooling of molten rock material.
Which statement is supported by the info. in the rock Cycle Diagram in the ERST?
*1 Metamorphic rock results directly from heat and/or pressure.*
2 Sedimentary rock can only be formed from igneous rock.
3 Igneous rock never results from melting and solidification.
4 All sediments turn directly into sedimentary rock.
Most igneous rocks form by which process?
*1 melting and solidfication*
2 heat and pressure
3 erosion and deposition
4 compaction and cementation
Some sedimentary rocks are composed of rock fragments which had different origins. Which statement best describes why this could occur?
1 Fossils are often found in sedimentary rock.
*2 Sedimentary rocks form from the weathered products of any type of rock.*
3 When molter lava solidifies to form sedimentary rock, it often contains foriegn particles.
4 Under high heat and pressure , recrustallization results in the formation of many minerals.
Which statement about the formation of a rock is best supported by the rock cycle?
1 Magma must be weathered before it can change to metamorphic rock.
*2 Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock.*
3 Sedimentary rock must melt before it can change to metamophic rock.
4 Metamorphic rock must melt before it can change o sedimentary rock.
Which of the following is a renewable resource?
1 lead
*2 water power*
3 fossil fuels
4 plastics
Which of the following items we use in our everday life is obtained from a non-renewable resource?
1 food
*2 gasoline*
3 oxygen
4 wooden furniture
An energy source that would be difficult to use in place of a constant cloud cover is
1 water power
2 wind power
*3 solar energy*
4 geothermal energy
Which natural resource is used to make plastics?
1 sun light
*2 oil*
3 iron
4 lead