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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abrasion
Rubbing together
absolute zero
Temperature at which all motion stops
air mass
A large body of air with similar characteristics throughout
altitude
The angular distance of a celestrial object above the horizon
air pressure
The weight of overlying air.
anemometer
Insturment used to measure wind speed.
anomalies
Something out of the ordinary. Unlikely to be repeated
asteriod
A solid rocky or metallic object that orbits the sun.
asthenosphere
A layer of Earth that acts like think plastic
atmosphere
The shell of gases that surround the Earth.
barometer
Instrument used to measure air pressure.
capillarity
The ability of water to rise in small openings.
climate
Long term weather patterns.
comet
Compared to a dirty snoball. Has a tail when gets too close to the sun.
condensation
Changing from a gas to a liquid.
conduction
The transfer of energy through the collision of molecules in solids.
constellation
A group of stars that form a pattern in the sky.
contour interval
How much each line is worth on a topographic map.
contour line
Connect points of equal elevation.
convection
The transfer of energy due to differences in density in liquids and gases.
convergent
Coming together.
coriolis effect
A deflection of materials caused by Earth's rotation.
correlation
Matching up rock outcrops based on similar characteristics.
cyclic
Events occuring in a predictable pattern.
cyclone
A low pressure center.
deforestation
The cutting down of trees.
density
How tightly packed the atoms are in an object.
depleted
To be used up.
deposition
To drop off due to a decrease in velocity.
dew point
The temperature at which condensation occurs.
discharge
How much water is flowing in a stream/river.
divergent
Moving apart.
doppler effect
An apparent change in wavelength caused by a change in distance between two objects.
duration
A length of time.
dynamic equilibrium
A balance between equal forces.
eccentricity
Out of roundness.
eclipse
Occurs when celestrial objects move into another's shadow.
elevation
The height above sea level.
ellipse
A closed curve around two points.
epicenter
The place on Earth's surface directly above the focus.
erosion
To pick up due to an increase in velocity.
evaportranspiration
All water that enters the atmosphere.
focus
A fixed point or the actual spot in the Earth's crust where an earthquake originates.
foucault pendulum
A device which provides eviodence that the Earth rotates.
front
An interface (boundary) between two air masses.
galaxy
A large groupiong of stars.
geocentric model
Earth-centered.
gradient
Steepness. Slope.
greenhouse effect
The trapping of infrared energy in the Earth's atmosphere.
depression
Show areas of decreasing elevation.
heliocentric
Sun-centtered.
hydrology
The study of water.
hydrosphere
The layer of water on the Earth's surface.
impermeable
Does not allow water to flow through.
index fossils
Best way to correlate rock layers.
inference
An educated guess. An hypothesis.
infiltration
To seep through due to gravity.
intensity
The strength of something.
interface
A boundary across which energy is exchanged.
isobar
Lines copnnecting points of equal pressure.
isotherm
Lines connecting points of equal temperature.
isotopes
A different form of an element differing only in mass.
kinetic energy
Energy in motion.
latitude
The angular distnace north or south of the Equator.
lithosphere
The solid ground that we walk on.
local time
Equal for all locations on the same meridian (line of longitude).
longitude
The angular distance east or west of the prime Meridian.
luminosity
The brightness of an object.
mass
The amount of matter (atoms) in an object.
meander
A bend in a river or stream.
meteor
Also called a shooting star.
meteorology
The study of weather.
model
A representation of a system.
orographic effect
The effect that mountains have on precipitation patterns.
outcrop
Bedrock that can be seen on the Earth's surface.
outgassing
The escaping of water vapor from Earth's crust.
ozone
A gas found in the Earth's atmosphere (O3).
percent deviation
The amount of error in a measurement.
permeable
Allows water to flow through.
porosity
The amount of space between particles.
potential energy
Stored energy.
pecipitation
Any form of water that falls to the earth.
principle of superposition
Oldest layers on the bottom.
principle of uniformitarianism
Those things that occurred in the past are also occuring today.
profile
A side view of a topographic map.
psychrometer
Instrument used to measure relative humidity and dew p;oint.
p-wave
The first wave to arrive after an earthquake occurs.
radiation
The transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves.
rate of change
How much something changes over time.
refraction
The bending of energy.
relative humidity
The percentage of the air that is filled with water.
revolution
Thje amount of time to go once around the sun.
rotation
Spinning on an axis.
saturated
Filled with water.
solar system
Made up of a star and all the objects which revolve around it.
solidification
Changing from a liquid to a solid.
specific heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree C.
strata
Layers of bedrock.
s-wave
The last wave to arrive after an earthquake occurs.
tectonics
A study of the Earth's crustal movements.
temperature
A measure of the average kinectic energy.
tides
Rising and falling of the oceans caused by the moon's gravitational attraction to the Earth.
transpiration
Release of water from plants.
tsunami
A large tidal wave caused by an earthquake.
unconformity
A buried erosional surface.
universe
Everything that exists.
vaporization
Changing from a liquid to a gas.
volume
The amount of space an object takes up.
water table
The interface between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation.
weathering
To break down.
zenith
The highest point.
zone of aeration
The portion of the soil which is filled with air.
zone of saturation
The portion of the soil which is filled with water.
age of the solar system
4.5 billion years
age of the Earth
4.5 billion years
age of the universe
11 to 12 billion years
abundant
In great quantities.
half-life
The amount of time that it takes for one half of a substance to become stable.
landscape
A section of land with similar characteristics.
lava
Magma that came to the
surface.