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193 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inferences
Conclusions or predictions based on observations
Instruments
Extend our senses to make observations
Cyclic Relationships
Repeat and are predictable
As temperature increases, density ___________.
decreases
As temperature increases, volume _________.
increases
As temperature increases, kinetic energy _________.
increases
As Pressure increases, volume _______.
decreases
As Pressure increases, density _______.
increases
Do the same objects of different sizes have the same density?
Yes
At what temperture is water most dense in liquid form?
4°C
Everything other than water is most dense in what form?
Solid
For objects with densities less than 1, the lower the density the _____ it floats.
Higher
The higher the density over 1, the faster the object ________.
Sinks
As population ▲, pollution ▲, water quality _____.
What topics make up Earth science?
Astronomy, meteorology,Geology, oceanography
Very round and smooth describe what planet?
Earth
What is the true shape of the earth?
oblate spheroid
What part of the earth is bulging? flattened?
bulging-equator
flattened- poles
You weigh________at the poles than the equator.
more
Altitude of polaris = your _________.
latitude
Polaris is also known as ________.
north star
Polaris is a special star b/c __________.
it is in line with the earth axis of rotation
Lithosphere
is the solid land part of earth
hydrosphere
is the liquid water part of the earth
Atmosphere
gas portion of earth, broken down into 4 layers
Latitude
lines run horizontal across like the equator, read n and s
Longitude
lines run vertically, read east and west of prime meridian
astrolab
instrument used to measure the altitude of a star above the horizon
Pointer stars
in big dipper point to polaris
Timezones
seperated by 15° degrees of longitude based on Earth's rate of rotation
Timezone: going west
subtract hr
Polaris is a special star b/c __________.
it is in line with the earth axis of rotation
Isoline
line connecting points of equal value
isobars, connecting points of equal _____.
pressure
Contour lines
connecting points of equal elevation above sea lever
Contour Interval
amount between adjacent contour lines,ocean is sea level/0°
Timezones
seperated by 15° degrees of longitude based on Earth's rate of rotation
Timezone: going west
subtract hr
Isoline
line connecting points of equal value
Isoline
line connecting points of equal value
isobars, connecting points of equal _____.
pressure
isobars, connecting points of equal _____.
pressure
isotherm, connecting points of equal _____.
temperature
isotherm, connecting points of equal _____.
temperature
Contour lines
connecting points of equal elevation above sea lever
Contour lines
connecting points of equal elevation above sea lever
Contour Interval
amount between adjacent contour lines,ocean is sea level/0°
Contour Interval
amount between adjacent contour lines,ocean is sea level/0°
Polaris is a special star b/c __________.
it is in line with the earth axis of rotation
Lithosphere
is the solid land part of earth
Polaris is a special star b/c __________.
it is in line with the earth axis of rotation
Polaris is a special star b/c __________.
it is in line with the earth axis of rotation
Lithosphere
is the solid land part of earth
hydrosphere
is the liquid water part of the earth
Lithosphere
is the solid land part of earth
hydrosphere
is the liquid water part of the earth
Atmosphere
gas portion of earth, broken down into 4 layers
hydrosphere
is the liquid water part of the earth
Atmosphere
gas portion of earth, broken down into 4 layers
Atmosphere
gas portion of earth, broken down into 4 layers
Latitude
lines run horizontal across like the equator, read N and S
Latitude
lines run horizontal across like the equator, read N and S
Longitude
lines run vertically, read east and west of prime meridian
Latitude
lines run horizontal across like the equator, read N and S
astrolab
instrument used to measure the altitude of a star above the horizon
Longitude
lines run vertically, read east and west of prime meridian
Pointer stars
in big dipper point to polaris
astrolab
instrument used to measure the altitude of a star above the horizon
Longitude
lines run vertically, read east and west of prime meridian
Timezones
seperated by 15° degrees of longitude based on Earth's rate of rotation
astrolab
instrument used to measure the altitude of a star above the horizon
Timezone: going west
subtract hr
Pointer stars
in big dipper point to polaris
Isoline
line connecting points of equal value
Timezones
seperated by 15° degrees of longitude based on Earth's rate of rotation
isobars, connecting points of equal _____.
pressure
Timezone: going west
subtract hr
isotherm, connecting points of equal _____.
temperature
Isoline
line connecting points of equal value
Contour lines
connecting points of equal elevation above sea lever
isobars, connecting points of equal _____.
pressure
Pointer stars
in big dipper point to polaris
Contour Interval
amount between adjacent contour lines,ocean is sea level/0°
Timezones
seperated by 15° degrees of longitude based on Earth's rate of rotation
isotherm, connecting points of equal _____.
temperature
Timezone: going west
subtract hr
Contour lines
connecting points of equal elevation above sea lever
Isoline
line connecting points of equal value
Contour Interval
amount between adjacent contour lines,ocean is sea level/0°
isobars, connecting points of equal _____.
pressure
isotherm, connecting points of equal _____.
temperature
Contour lines
connecting points of equal elevation above sea lever
Contour Interval
amount between adjacent contour lines,ocean is sea level/0°
Lines close together on a topographic map mean _______.
steep gradient
___% of earth's energy comes from the sun
99%
The ________ region gets the most direct insolation (high angle)
equatorial region
The ________ get the least insolation (low angle)
poles
What layer of the atomosphere contains all the water?
troposphere
What time of the day are temperatures highest? lowest?
highest- afternoon
coldest- just before dawn
When air is colder molecules are_______, presure is _____, there is ______water vapor and the density is ___.
closer; higher; little room for; higher
When air is hotter molecules are_______, presure is _____, there is ______water vapor and the density is ___.
farther, lower, room for, low
Warm air always rises because it is _____.
less dense
Precipitation
rain, sleet, hail, snow
evaporation is greatest when it is _____________.
hot, dry, and windy
Condensation
water vapor turns into liquid water releasing 540 calories of heat energy
Sun (stars) give off _____________________ over a wide range of wavelengths.
electromagnetic radiation
What layer of the earth filters or blocks harmful rays such as UV?
atmosphere
Visible light
the most intense form or radiation recieve by Earth
conduction
transfer of energy in solids through molecules vibrating and touching
convection
transfer of energy in liquids and gases due to differences in density
radiation
transfer of energy in waves -needs no medium (space) sun to earth or a light bulb
Angle of insolation
how high the sun is in the sky, as angle incr. temp. incr.
Greenhouse gases
CO2 and H2O
What do the Greenhouse gases do?
CO2 and H2O absorb infrared waves and send them back to earth, thus trapping heat
What month and time of day does maximum temperture occur?
late july and in early afternoon
What has the highest specific heat?
Water
Specific heat
time to heat up , time to cool down (longer time = higher specific heat)
celestial objects
(sun, moon, stars) rise in east and set in west due to earth's rotation
Stars around polaris make __________.
circles
Does polaris move?
no; stays still
Altitude of polaris = your _________.
latitude
Zenith
90° overhead
rotation
spinning on axis, causes day and night, 365 times a yr, rotation rate of 15°/hr
revolution
one body orbits around another body; earth revolution rate = 1°/day
constellation
grouping of stars which form a pattern
On june 21st what is angle of sun's direct rays?
23.5°N
On December 21st what is angle of sun's direct rays?
23.5°S
On March 21st and Sept. 21 what is angle of sun's direct rays?
Heliocentric model
sun centered, corrrect model, planet revolve around sun in elliptical orbits
Geocentric model
earth centered, wrong model, planets and sun revolve around earth
Proof of rotations
foucault pendulum and coriolis effect
Solar noon
time when sun reaches highest point in sky
increase rate of rotation would lead to increased __________.
coriolis effect
seasons are caused by.....?
revolution, and tilt of earth on its axis
summer
north pole tilted to sun(24 hr day)
winter
north pole away from sun (24 hr night)
in summer in NYS, the sun rises from the ______ and sets in the _____.
NE;NW
in winter in NYS, the sun rises from the ______ and sets in the _____.
SE;SW
equinox
day and night equal (12hrs) direct rays on equator
Altitude of noon sun is greatest on _______.
June 21
Altitude of noon sun is least on _________.
December 21
In NYS the sun is always ______ at noon time.
south
When the sun is high in the sky your shadow is ________.
short
Duration of insolation
the length of daylight
In the summer the duration of insolation is ________ then in the winter.
higher
What causes different constellations to be visible at different times of yr?
revolution
Is the sun ever overhead (90°) in NYS?
no
Would there be seasons if the earth WASN'T tilted?
no
If you increase earth's tilt then summers would be _____er and winters would be _______er
warmer; cooler
noon shadows always point ____ in NYS.
north
Uneven length of daylight during the year is caused by _______
earth's tilt
What stars in the big dipper help to find polaris?
pointer stars
What are moon phases caused by?
revolution of moon around the earth
How long is one revolution of the moon?
27-29.5 days
when moon is between earth and sun this is a ______.
new moon
When the moon is between sun and earth a ___________ may occur.
solar eclipses; gets dark during middle of day
Lunar eclipses
S E M; occur during the full moon phase, earth's shadow on moon
eclipses don't happen every month b/c __________.
the moon's orbit is 5° with respect to Earth's orbit
When an object is closer it looks __________.
bigger (far=small)
tides
caused by moons gravitational pull on earth
When earth moon sun are in line it is a _____ tide.
spring
When moon, earth + sun make 90° angle there is a _____ tide.
neap (weak tides)
There are ___ high tides and ___ low tides per day.
2;2 (cyclic change)
If a satellite is close to a star, orbital velocity is ____.
greates
satellite closest = _____ gravitational force
high
satellite closest = ___ kinetic energy
high
satellite closest = ____ potential energy
low
satellite closest = _____ apparent diameter
large
Planets sweep out equal area's in equal amounts of time is stated by
kepler's law
as distance from a star increases, rate of revolution _______ by inverse square
decreases
eccentricity
measure of how flattened the orbit is
what is the measure of the most eccentric? least?
1, line; 0, circle
satellites are kept in elliptical orbits by ______ and ______.
inertia and gravity
inner four planets are _____
rocky
outer four planets are
gas giants
Is pluto an inner or outer planet?
none; just an iceball
what is the hottest planet?
venus
what is the only planet with liquid water on the surface?
earth
asteroid
big rock in space, most between mars and jupiter
meteor
shooting star, rock burning up in our atmosphere due to friction
comet
dirty snow ball highly elliptical orbit
sun
regular star, burns by converting hydrogen into helium
nuclear fusion
sun turns hydrogen to helium
galaxy
collection of billions of stars
big bang
universe expanding from initial explosion
proof of big bang
galaxies are moving away from us (further the faster)
proof of galaxies moving away?
red shift
age of universe is
10-15 billion
age of solar system is
4.6 billion
light yr-
distance light travels in a yr
equilibrium
a system in balance
pollution
anything harmful that effects a linving organism
ozone layer
protects us from harmful UV and other short wave radiation from the sun