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### 125 Cards in this Set

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 inference interpretation based on observations classification grouping objects w/ similar observed properties mass amount of matter in an object volume amount of space an object takes up percent deviation/percent error formula percent deviation= difference from accepted value ------------------------------ accept value TIMES: 100 density the concentration of matter in an object float or sink: density is less than the density of a liquid float float or sink: density is more than the density of a liquid sink the lower the density, the ___ it floats higher if an object and a lidquid have exactly the same density.. the object can remain stationary anywhere in the liquid what happens to the density of something whos temperature rises and whos pressure remains the same? density decreases explain this temp. causes its molecules to move farther apart what happens to the density if pressure increases? the density increases explain this molecules come closer together in what phase is the density of a substance the largest? solid what is the exception? water-hgihest density at liquid state why does ice float on liquid wate? bc water has its highest density at liquid at what temp is water densest? 4 degrees celcius rate of change formula change in field value ------------------- change in time examples of cyclic changes movement of stars, moon, planets, sun number of sunspots tides seasonal events water and rock cycles interface the boundary between different regions with different properties dynamic equilibrium environmental equilibrium resulting from opposing forces or actions balancing out name some natural pollutants pollen in the air volcanic dust and smoke x-rays from radioactive decay what are evidences of earths spherical shape? 1. photographs taken from space 2. the way ships appear to sink as they travel past the horizon 3. the similarity of strength of gravity at sea level all over earths surface 4. circular shadow of earth on earths moon during lunar eclipse 3 spheres of the earth atmosphere hydrosphere lithosphere spheres in order from most dense to least dense lithosphere hydrosphere atmosphere atmps[here the layer of gases that surrounds Earth above the surface of liquid water and rocky material zones of the atmpshere troposphere, stratosphere, mesoshere, and thermosphere pauses the interfaces, or boundaries, of the layers of earths atmosphere hydrosphere the layer of liquid water that lies between the atmosphere and much of the upper layer of earths interior. consists of oceans and other bodies of water lithosphere layer of rock that forms the solid outer shell at the top of earths interior spheres of earth from thinnest to thickest hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmopshere what two elements make up most of earths hydrosphere 1. hydrogen (most) 2. oxygen what does increasing latitude mean? moving away from the equator or towards the geographic poles what does decreasing latitude mean moving towards the equator or away from the geographic poles meridians longitude lines altitude of polaris equals latitude in the northern hemisphere local noon when the sun reaches its highest altitude of the day in the sky how fast does earth rotate 15 degrees per hour in what direction does earth rotate west to east where is polaris located over earths axis of rotation field any region of space or the environment that has some measurable value of a given quantity at every point ISOLINES LINES used to connect points of equal field values isotherms connect points of equal temperature isobars connect points of equal air pressure contour lines connect points of equal elevation gradident the rate of change from place to place within the field value also called slope gradient formula change in field value --------------------- change in distance topograhpic map[ contour map-model of the elevation field of the surface of earth elevation distance or height above sea level ways to tell which way a stream is flowing opposite the bends of the contour lines flow to lower elevation as depth within earths interior increases, the density, temp, and pressure increase measurements taken with gravity meters would probably be most useful in providing information concerning earths shape celestial object any object outside or above earths atmosphere universe anything that exists in any place big bang theory sttates that all matter and energy started out concentrated in a small area and, after a gigantic explosion, matter began to organize into aubatomic particles and atoms, and earth continues to expand evidences of the big bang 1. long-wavelength background radiation coming from all directions in the universe 2. stars emit radiation-redshift-universe is expanding doppler effect shifting of wavelengths either to shorter (blue end) or longer (red end) red shift electromagnetic wavelengths spread out when earth and some other celestial object are moving apart blue end short wavelengths..moving closer red longer wavelengths..moving farther lines in between red and blue not moving toward or away from earth how old is the universe between 10 and 20 billion yrs old galaxy collection of billions of stars nuclear fusion combining of the nuclei of smaller elements to form the nuclei of larger elements with some of the mass being converted into energy as size and temp. of stars increase luminosity increases coolest stars of main sequence stars red dwarf giant stars big and low tempetature super giant usually explode in a supernova the super fiant stars that are the brightest and exhibit the highest temperature blue super giants what stars are bigger than the sun super giants white dwargs small hot low luminosity black dwarfs when white dwarf cools and no longer emits electromagnetic energy-"dead" the evolutionary states of stars-after they spend most of their lives as main sequence star-depends upon... their original mass evolutionary stages of stars 1. Gas and dust clouds form stars 2. Main sequence 3. red giant or super giant 4. LOW MASS=white dwarf-->black dwarf HIGH MASS=supernova 5. supernova-HIGH MASS=neutron star LOW MASS=black hole the sun's energy is most likely the result of the fusion of hydrogen atoms as star color changes from blue to red, the surface temp. of the star.. decreases star of high temp and low luminosity white dwarf asteroid a solid rocky and/or metallic body that independently orbits the sun has no atmosphere comet composed of solids that asily change to gas when heated when they get near the sun, their ices turn to gas sometimes the solids released and the tails are visible from earths sky meteroids small solid fragment that orbit the sun w meteors when meteroids burn up or vaporize, they leabe a brief visual streak as they pass through earths atmosphere and are called meteors impact crater depression in earths crust from meteorites that have sufficent mass to create it when did our solar system start about 5 billion yrs ago how did our solar system form? gas cloud gravitation perhaps aided by shock wave from exploding star, caused the cloud to condense into one or more mass concentrations. impact event the gravitational forces of earth and other planets pulled on the smaller clumps of matter to cause comets, asteroids, and meteroids to collide with the planets in what is called an impact event what star is not included in our solar system? polaris what objects are condiered part of our solar system? objects that revolve around the sun compare the diameters of the planets mercury venus earth mars small-->bigger-->about same-->smaller jupiter saturn uranus neptune pluto bigger-->smaller-->smaller-->about the same-->very small terrestrial planets close to the sun and mostly solid small diameters and high densities impact craters few or no moons and no rings what are the terrestrial planets? earth, mercury, venus, earth, and mars jovian planets far from the sun gaseous large diameters and low densities no solid serfaces and no craters have many moons and have rings what are the jovian planets? jupiter, saturn, uranus, and neptune ellispe oval shape that the planets' orbits are in eccentricity formula distance between foci --------------------- length of the major axis foci two fixed points on the ellipse eccentricity the ovalness of an ellipse what would the orbits of the planets look like to the human eye? a circle inertia an object at rest will tend to remain at rest, and an object in motion will maintain the direction and speed of that motion unless an opposing force affects it gravitation the attractive force that exists between any two objects in teh universe the greater the mass..(gravity) the more gravitational attraction there is between objects the greater the distance...(gravity) the less gravitiational attraction what is an example of dynamic equilibriumbetween inertia and gravitation? orbit of a planet around the sun when does a planets orbital velocity increase? when it gets closer to the sun the closer a planet is to the sun... the shorter its period of revolution and the faster its speed of revolution where are the most circular planets? closer to the sun which two planets orbits would not look like a circle to the human eye mercury and pluto geocentric model earth centered model helliocentric model earth and planets rotates around sun how is earths axis tilited 231/2degrees what are evidences of earths roation? 1. foucault pendulum-when it is allowed to swing freely, its pth will appear to change in a predictable way 2. coriolis effect-tendency of all particles of matter moving at earths surface to be deflected, or curved away from a straight-line path, to the right in the northern hemisphere nd to the left in the southern hemisphere evidence of earths revolution 1. if the earth did not revolve, the same part of earth would tilt toward the sun at all times and the seasons would always stay the same 2. there are different constellations in different seasons 3. slight changes in doppler effect of stars-movement to and away from stars cause slight blue and red shifting local time time based on rotation on which side of the international dateline is it a day later? west solar time based on the actual motions of the sun in the sky mean solar time time on the watch at noon what is the period of the moons orbit? 27 1/3 days warmer fluid= lower density all energy of an object or system not related to the individual motions of atoms and molecules mechanical energy specific heat the quantity of heat needed to raise the temp. of one gram of any substance one degree celcius temp. the measure of the average kinttic energy of the particles of a body of matter angle of suns rays at noon one dec. 21 24.5 angle of suns rays at noon on march 21 and sept. 23 48 degrees el nino warming of cold waters in the eastern pacific ocean off western south america sunspot a darker region of the sun's visible surface