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34 Cards in this Set

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Pressure measurement
millibars measured w/ barometer
Low pressure
air rising and converging-upward movement of warm air convection and forced air convergence-higher rainfall
high pressure
air descending and diverging-descent of cold air
Factor affecting winds
Pressure gradient force, coriolis effect, friction
Pressure gradient force
moves from high to low pressure, perpendicular to isobars on pressure maps-velocity proportional to press. gradient,
Isobars
lines connecting points that have the same pressure-high pressure indicated by closely spaced
Coriolis effect
deflection of materials moving freely over the earth's surface-right in N. hemi, left in the S. hemi-deflect is proport to wind speed and lat.
Friction
High near the surface and decreases w/ alt.-velocity of wind lowest near ground, wind blows parrallel aloft
geostrophic winds
high wind velocity alft results in strong coriolis deflect-winds blow parallel to isobars aloft
Spatial patterns of surface winds
cyclones and anticyclones-patterns are reversed aloft
cyclonic flow
flow around a low pressure center: ccw in N. Hemi-cw in S.Hemi
Anticyclonic flow
flow around a high pressure center-cw in N. hemi ccw in S. hemi
Global circulation-non-rotating
equatorial low pressure-thermal convection, polar high press-thermal subsidence-surface winds flow south
Pressure belts-rotating earth no land
equatorial low-thermal, subtropical high-dynamic, sub polar low-dynamic, polar high-thermal
wind belts
trade winds, westerlies, polar easterlies
ITCZ
Inter-tropical convergence zone-changes throughout the year
doldrum
zone of weak winds near ITCZ
Horse latitude
zone of weak winds around subtropical high
Polar front
interface of polar easterlies and westerlies
Continents
break winds into cells
jet stream
related to the tracking of fronts-tubes of high velocity winds
Monsoonal climate
6 months very wet 6 months very dry-due to wind shift through the year.
Continental Polar front
dry and cold air mass that forms over land
Maritime tropical
warm and humid air mass that forms over oceans
Stationary front
semi-stable difference in energy results in a kink spliting into warm and cold front
Mid latitude cyclone
low pressure center-cold front, warm front, occluded front
cold front
narrow, intense rain band-steep shapes-violent updrafts result in thunderstorm, downdraft-tornadoes
warm front
wide, gentle rain band-warm air ramps over cold air
occluded front
wide band of heavy rain-cold fronts fster than warm mix together
NC front
warm front hits first and MT so humid and hot then cold front-violent t storms
tropical cyclones
low pressure center devel. over warm oceans in tropics
tropical depression
sustained < 38mph
tropical storm
sustained 38-74mph
hurricane
sustained > 78mph pacific(typhoon), india(cyclone)