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55 Cards in this Set

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How was water dissolve things?
it's polar and it takes apart ionic solids one atom at a time.
How do you test acids and bases?
Pheno-turns pink in base
Red Litmus-blue in base
Blue Litmus-red in acid
What causes acid rain?
Sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the air
What causes natural acid rain?
Carbon dioxide
Amount of water on Earth
70%
-97% is salt
-3% is fresh
--2% is frozen
Has the amount of salt in the ocean changed?
No, it's been the same for millions of years
Drinking Water Treatment
Coagulation-settling
Filtration
Chlorine to kill bacteria
Aeration
Fluoride
Waste Water Filtration
Bacteria added
Settling
Add nitrogen and chlorine
What is the largest usable reservior of fresh water?
Ground water
Porosity
Percentage of pores
Amount of space for ground water
Permeability
Ability to move through something
Salinity of Ocean Water
3.5%
Where does the salt in the oceans come from?
Weathering rocks and outgassing from volcanic eruptions
How does salinity vary?
High evapoation=high salinity
High surface run-off=low salinity
thermocline
Decreases as you get deeper into the ocean
Pycnocline
increases as you get deeper into the ocean
Waves
energy from wind
transverse
circular motion
breakers-not circular
Currents
masses of ocean water
coriolis effect
brings warm water to the cold coast via the gulf stream
Oceans have how much more water in the south?
20%
How many ocean basins are there? are they shallow?
4, they are deep
Continental Margins
gentle shelf meets steep slope
Ocean Basin Floor
abyssal plain with seamounts and deep ocean trenches
Oceanic Ridges
Mid-ocean ridge
center basin, faulting and volcanoes
Ocean is layered according to density
Surface zone
Transition (thermo and pycnocline)
Deep zone (80% of all life)

*Does not layer in higher altitudes
Marine Life Zones
Intertidal
Neritic (from cont. shelf-shelf break)
Oceanic
Tides
Caused by the moons gravity
2 low and 2 high tides per day
Spring and neap tides
Spring tide
higher high tides and lower low tides during the new and full moons
Neap Tide
Lower high tides and lower low tides during the first and third quarter moons
Composition of Air
78% nitrogen
21% Oxygen
4% water
Layers of the atmosphere
Thermosphere-ionosphere
Mesosphere-temp increase w/height
Stratosphere-ozone
Troposphere-where weather occurs
Does density increase or decrease with increasing altitude?
decreases
What is the degree of tilt of the Earth?
23.5
A steeper angle means...?
more intense direct rays
Solstice
vertical rays at tropic of cancer=summer
capricorn=winter
Equinox
equal day because vertical rays are at the equator
Ways heat transfers
Conduction-heat moves through matter
Convection-circles in a substance
Radiation-moves in all directions from it's source
Greenhouse effect
heat gets trapped in the atmosphere and is absorbed by carbon dioxide and water
Humidity
the amount of water in the air
Relative humidity
ratio of the amount of water in the air over the total amount of water it could hold at that given temperature
What measures relative humidity?
Psychrometer
Dew Point
the temperature at which water condenses
How do clouds form?
Condense at the dew point around dust particles
Types of clouds
Cirrus-curls of hair
Stratum-layer
Cumulus-pile
Nimbus-rain
Alto-middle
Precipitation
There are many forms
Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds
Density increases/decreases with pressure increase?
increases
What measures air pressure?
Barometer
High pressure indicates?
Low pressure?
clear weather, cloudy weather
Wind is caused by what?
inequal heating from high pressure to low pressure
In the northern hemisphere, wind moves to the _____ due to what?
Right, Coriolis effect
Sea and Land Breeze
cooler, dense ocean air travels onshore causing the warm beach air to rise. vice versa at night
Air masses
large bodies of air with the same temperature and moisture
Types of air masses
Continental
Polar
Maritime
Tropical
Fronts
separate different air masses
Types of fronts
Cold-warm air rises fast
Warm-cirrus clouds
Stationary-grey weather
Occluded-squeezes warm air
draw the hydrological cycle using windward and leeward
check drawing for:
Evap.
Condens.
Precip.
absorb.
infiltration
ground water
surface runoff
transpiration
windward
leeward