Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/71

Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Basaltic Magma
less silica, so not very viscous
Very hot, flows easily
Granitic Magma
more silica, so very viscous
Not very hot, does not flow easily
Gases
LAVA THAT FLOWS EASLIY ALLOWS THE GASES TO BUBBLE UPWARDS AND ESCAPE
GRANITIC
LOTS OF GAS FORCES LAVA INO AIR
PYROCLASTICS
ANY PARTICLES OR LAVA EJECTED FROM A VOLCANO THAT COOLS BEOFRE IT HITS THE GROUND
CRATER
OPENING AT THE TOP OF A VOLCANO
CINDER CONE
MADE OF PYROCLASTIC MATERIAL DROPPING DOWN AFTER ERUPTIONS, GRANITIC LAVA, STEEP SIDES BUT SMALL VOLCANOES
Shield volcano
layers of lava
Compostise Volcanoes
most dangerous due to size and viscosity of lava and nuee ardentes ( a cloud of hot gas and ash)
Extrusive
reaches the earths surface
Intrusive
never reaches the earths surface
Dike
vertical, former volcanic necks
Sill
horizontal, along the rock neck
Laccolith
sill of viscous magma that pushes up a dome
BATHOLITH
cooled magma chamber
Hot Spot
place far from a plate boundary where magma reached the surface
Minerals
naturally occuring, nonliving soilds with a unique chemical structure and composition
Rock
a bunch of minerals
Color and Streak
color can be highly variable, and streak is the color of the powered form and is always the same
Hardness
resistance to scratching
Cleavage
the way a mineral break
Specific Gravity
the weight
Nonsilicated
includes carbonates limestone and marble
Igneous
rock formed directly from the cooling molten rock
Sedimentary
rock formed from pieces of broken rock
Metamorphic
rock that has been exposed to heat and pressure
Crystallization
cooling of magma to form crystals
Glass
instantly cooled lava
Weathering
the breakdown of a mineral or rock into sediments( pieces of rocks)
Erosion
the transportation of sediments away from the original source area
Mechanical Weathering
physical processes that weather rock
Frost wedging
breakdown of rock due to the expansion of frozen water
Unloading
"peeling" of rock layers due to expansion after great pressures are released
Bioerosion
weathering due to the activity of living organisms (Plants)
Chemical weathering
the alteration of minerals due to some agent
Mud
not visible to the human eye includes silt and clay
Depositional Environment
conditions under which the sediments were deposited
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
precipitated from solution due to natural saturation levels or by biological processes
Evaporites
result from the evaporation of sea water
Limestone
most are built by living organisms
Coal
sediments are pieces of plants
Lithification
conversion of sediments into rock ( to lithify)
Compaction
reduction of pore space ( squezze to make a rock)
Cementation
gluing sediments together
Load
the material being carried by water
Delta
alluvial fan that forms in the ocean
Sorting
movement of water at different velocitites sorts grains according to size
Rounding
reflects the amount of time a particle has been eroding
Channel
highest velocity
Point Bar
sand bar
Levee
raised banks
Braided
mountain stream ( high Vel)
Meandering
low angle streams ( low Vel)
Groundwater
water filling in the pore space between rocks or soil grains
Water Table
point closest to the surface where water occurs
Zone of saturation
area with water
Zone of aeration
area without water
Aquitard
prevents movement of water
Porosity
amounts of open space in a rock
Permeability
ability of the water to move through the ground
Aquifers
porous and permeable rocks
Spring
place where groundwater reaches the surface
Hot Springs
water comes from deeper in the earth
Geyser
water is heated then explodes outward
Well
cylinder dug to extract groundwater
Artesian well
groundwater is under pressure so it flows outward without assistance
Metamorphism
rocks change form
Heat
most important, drives chemical reactions, makes rocks elastic, comes from deep burial or intrusive magmas
Pressure
from burial or from overloading
Chemicals
water is the most important, may bring in ions for reactions
Foliation
crystals reform according to their natural shapes, not the alignment that they were deposited