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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what two characteristics of the temperatures of a region are most important?
1. average temp. over the year
2. range of average monthly temp(average difference between the average temp of the hottest month and average temp of the coldest month)
what does arid mean
when is a climate arid?
when the P is less than Ep
what is Ep largely determined by?
what is humid
when is aclimte humid?
when the P is greater than Ep
what are factors that determine climate?
-planetary wind and pressure belts
-oceans and other large bodies of water
-ocean currents
-amount of cloud coer
what does air do in areas of low press?
air rises and forms clouds, much precipitation, and humid climates
what does air do in areas of high press?
sinks, warms the air, and results in arid or desert climates
as distance from the equator increases, the annual temperature RANGE...
they have a greater amount of change in duration of insolation during the year
why will a land mass near a large body of water's climate be affected by the water?
water heats and cools off slowly
marine climate
an area with temps moderated by proximity to a body of water
how does the climate of an area near the water compare to inland areas?
it has cooler summers and warmer winters; a smaller annual range of temps
how do the areas inland compare to the coastal areas?
cooler winters and warmer summer and a wider annual range of temps
what is this kind of climate called?
what are prevailing winds (planetary winds) caused by?
the pressure differences and the effects of earths rotation (the coriolis effect)
in what windbelt is most of the contiguous US located
prevailing southwesterly wind belt
in what direction does weather move in the US?
southwest to northeast
(more generally west to east)
why does the west coast of the US have much more of a marine climate the the esast coast?
bc the west coast has prevailing winds blowing fromthe ocean and the east coast has them blowing from the middle of the US
weather changes caused by the seasonal shifts in the direction of prevailing winds
what are monsoon usually associated w/?
the wet summers and dry winters of southeast asia
what does a cool ocean current cause
cooler temps and less precipitation
why is there less precipitation?
cool water results in cool air, which cannot hold much water vapor
what does a warm ocean current cause?
warmer temps and more precipitation
which way do warm current flow?
away from the equator towards the higher latitudes
which way do cool currents flow?
toward the equator to the lower latitudes
2 reasons why does elevation affect climate
1. as air rises, it expands and cools
2. lower amounts of greenhouse gases at higher altitudes, which means less absoprtion of radiation from the sun and earths surface
how does elevation affect climate?
how does elevation affect precipitation?
higher elevations ahve more precipitation
as elevation increases, the temp and water vapor capacity decreases, air thus approaches the dew point, condensation forms clouds, and precipitation often occurs
which way is the air going on the winward side?
the air rises
desribe the windward side
cooler, more himud climate
cooling when air expands
in which direction are the prevailing winds going?
from the windward to the leeward side
describe the leeward side
warmer, dry climate
warming when air compresses
which way is the air going on the leeward side?
the air descends
why does the leeward side have less precipitation?
the air has lost much of its moisture and its water vapor capacity rises as its temp increases
why can opposite sides of a mountain have different temp patterns?
bc mountains act as barriers to moving air masses, preventing cold air or warm air from corssing the mountain to the other side
how does vegetation affect climate?
when rainforests are cut down and converted into farms or grazing land, the climate often becomes hotter and less humid
bc there is more runoff and less transpiration to add huminidy.
also, without all the trees to absorb solar energy, the solar enerrgy heats the land instead, which then heats the atmopshere
high percentage of cloud coverage=
less sun reaching earth, less heat
stream discharge
the volume of river water
when does stream discharge decrease?
when we are in usage
when water comes from storage
high ep relationship w/ temperature
high temp
low Ep relationship w/ temp
low temp
what is the #1 factor that determines the temp?
when the
relationship is over 1, the climate is...
when is is under 1, the climate is
what 2 things determine climate?
1. rainfall
2. temp
where does europe get the warm currents from?
the gulf stream..gulf of mexico
what causes ocean currents?
why does water change temp slowly?
it has a high specific heat
El Nino
random warm water current in the pacific
has major effects on global climates