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90 Cards in this Set

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Dunes
Produced by wind
Back shore
only under water duing hurricane
Foreshore
underwater at high tide
offshore
always under water
Tides
We move toward the water-moon pulls water away from the earth as well as the sun's gravity
Barycenter
earth and moon revolving around each other
Spring tide
when sun and moon are aligned w/ earth-tidal range is greatest w/ two low and two very high tides/day
Neap tide
When sun and earth are aligned,but moon is @ a right angle from the sun-low range bt high and low tide/day
Seismic waves
caused by earthquakes and cause tsunamis
Wave refraction
the bending of a wave when one end drags the bottom and slows down before the other-eliminates headland
Longshore current
result from waves metting coastline at an angle
Embayment
beach deposit
rip cureent
returning current must swim parralell to shore
Emergence
caused by uplift of land/sea level lowering-rocky cliff-CA-tectonic/ or glaciers
Submergent
glacial melting due to warming-result higher sea level-also caused by susidence of land-ria, fjord, estuary
ria
submergent feature-progressively narrowing and shallowing embayment
fjord
submerged glacial valleys-pamilico and albermarle sound
estuary
brackish water ecosystem common in rias-fresh water mixes w/ salt
Sand balance
loss of beaches occurs due to man made structures dams and sea walls lessens beaches
Headlands
eroded by waves and fill up bays results in change in coastline
Marine Terrace
cliff formed from platform by uplift-tectonic
Wave cut
cutting action of waves against coast-erosion cont to form notch-crumbles forms platform
Sea arch
form by two old caves
sea stack
when sea arch breaks apart
Erosional features coast
Wave cut/platform, Marine terraces, sea arch, sea stack
depositional features coast
beaches spits tombolos barrier islands, baymouth bars
Spit
by longshore current-sand drags @ right angle-partially emerges into bay-hook
bay mouth bar
isolated sediment built up offshore-completely encloses bay
tombolos
strip of sand that connects the mainland to the an offshore island
barrier islands
parallel strips of land offshore
breakwater
wave attack takes coastline-wall built to take wave energy awy before reaching the coast-out in water
sea wall
on coast/out in water-energy is sdissipated on wall, sand is not transported and erodes under wall-wall collapess
groi;ns
longshore current protector-parallel to coast
boulders
form stone walls to protect against erosion
jetties
form walls of inlet into harbor and have a break water at ocean end
Atomosphere
produced during out gasing formed lightest element surrounding heaviest elements toward center-gas surrounds the earth
weather
state of the atomsphere at a given time and place
climate
annual weather regime of a place-including seasonal weather of a place-diff. in avg temp and press. etc
composition of air
N 78%, O 21%, Ar .93%, CO2 .0036%(greenhouse gas)
variable components of air
ozone, water vapor, aerosols
Ozone
mid atmospheric stratosphere-ground ozone too
water vapor
sunlight hitting ocean causes
aerosols
fumes combustion products and pollen
Density of atomosphere
closer to the earth higher density, 50% of atmosphere below Mt. Everest-10km-weather occurs most of below 16km
Sea level pressure
1013 mB-pressure decreases rapidly w/ altitude
Atmospheric pressure
"weight" of the atomosphere-total foces exerted on a surface by colliding gas molecules
Troposphere
most air and water vapor, clouds w/ a lot vertical mixing-lower temp then stratospher
Environmental lapse rate
how something changes w/ altitude in troposphere -6.5 C/ km
Tropopause
bt stratosphere and troposphere-constant/ pause in temperature
Stratosphere
ozonic layer-O3-molecules absorb UV and re-release as heat so increase in temp in stratosphere
Mesosphere
Temp decrease
Thermosphere
Increase in temp, but air molecules are too sparse to be sensible heat
Ozone etc.
naturally produced-stratospheric ozone and ground level ozone
Stratospheric ozone
ozone hole cause by CFC-banned in 76-hole is circulated seasonally due to variations at poles and equator-and globally dispersed-hole-less UV is blocked
Ground level ozone
produced by auto-harmful to lungs
latent energy
water always needs an exchange of energy to change phase-movement of water is also the movement of energy
heat transfer
direct conduction and convection
Heat
total kinetic energy of all atoms and molecules making up a substance-always flows from areas of higher temp to areas of lower temp
Temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of ind. atoms or molecules in a substance
Mech of heat transfer
Conduction and convection
conduction
heating of a cooler materaial by a warmer material-in direct contact w/ it
convection
transfer of heat through a fluid via density diff induced ciruculation-heated materials expand become less dense than surrounding
Radiation
trasnfer of energy via electromagnetic waves from sun
Object wavelength
hot object-short wavelength-cool object-long wavelength
Infrared
sensible heat energy-can feel but can't see-longer than visible red
ultraviolet
shoter than violet
visible light
ROYGBIV-most light from sun is visible-atmosphere allows short wavelength to be absorbed by land and sea.
ALBEDO
vegetation low-reflects, desert-high smooth surface, water-high at high sun, low at low sun
Greenhouse effect
makes life possilbe-incoming radiation can be transerred into heat energy
Greenhouse gases
trap in a thicker atmosphere-warm up too much-physical process by which global warming occurs
Absorption and reradiation
abosorbe radiant energy i s converted to heat within the absorbing object-good absorbers are good emitters
Total energy receipt depends on
Length of daylight, elevation of sun above horizon, atmosphere reflection
Earth sun relationships
length of daylight and elevation of the sun are controlled, three components-revolution, rotation, tilt
revoluation
movement of earth around the sun-1 yr
rotation
spin of the earth on its axis-1 day in one year-365.25 rotation
Tilt
inclination of earth's axis-23.5 degrees during revolution axis remains oriented the same direction-solstices and equinoxes
Solstices
Dec 21-22-north pole away from sun, June 21-22 north ple pointed directly toward sun
Dec 21-22
Noon sun direct overhead @tropic of cap. 23.5 S Artic circle 66.5 N 24 hrs of darkness
June 21-22
Noon sun direct overhead @ tropic of cancer 23.5, 24 hrs of daylight in N artic circle 66.5 N 24 hrs of darkness S artic circle 66.5 S
Equinoxes
March 21-22, Sept 22-23 hrs of daylight and darkness are equal everywhere on earth
March 21-22
tilt in line w/ orbital path-spring in north, noon sun directly overhead @ equator
Sept 22-23
tilt in line w/ orbital path autumn in north-noon sun direct overhead @ equator
At equator
always 12 hrs. day and night
Greensboro
36 degrees
Land and water
Land near water has smaller annually temp range and vice versa-water heat up and cools slower than land
Geographic position and temp
Eureka CA v. NYC winds move from W->E so despite same lat. CA has more mild winters and summers than NYC
Cloud cover
traps longwave radiation w/o cloud cover it's hot in day colder at night-biggest change in temp through day and night
longwave loss
when most loss highest temp-loss occurs w/ most insolation
Coldest
just b4 sunrise
Hottest
2-3pm