Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the shape of the land
What are the 3 factors that make up topography
What is elevation
height greater than sealevel
What is relief?
The highest elevation minus the lowest elevation
(the difference between the highest and lowest elevation)
What are landforms
things formed by the processes that shape the earth
What are 3 kinds of landforms
What is a plain
a nearly flat or gently rolling area with little relief
What is an interior plain?
A plain away from the coast
What are mountains
An area with high elevation and high relief
What are mountain ranges?
A group of mountains close in shape, structure and age
What is a mountain system?
A group of mountain ranges
What is a mountain belt?
A group of mountain ranges and systems
What are plateaus?
area with high elevation and level surface which may be cut by streams and rivers
What is a landform region?
An area where the topography is made of mostly one landform
What is a map
A flat model of Earth as seen from above
What is a globe
A sphere that represents the entire surface of the earth and correctly shows the relative size, shape and position of landforms
What do maps and globes have in common
Both maps and globes are drawn to scale and use symbols to represent topography
How is scale indicated
in a ratio of distance on a map to distance on earth
EX. 1 in = 1 mile
What are symbols?
shapes and pictures that stand for features on Earth's surface on maps
What kinds of symbols are on maps?
physical landforms like mountains
man-made things like highways and airports
What is a map legend
Where to look to find out what the symbols mean
What is a compass rose?
a symbol which relates directions on a map to directions on Earth N
What are the baselines for measuring distance on the Earth's surface
the prime meridian and the equator
What are degrees
the units scientists use to measure distance around a circle
How many degrees is a circle
How much is a degree?
1/360 of the distance of the circle/sphrer
What are minutes and seconds
Smaller units of measure than a degree
What is the equator?
An imaginary line that circles the earth -- separates the earth into the North and South Hemisperes
What is the prime meridian?
an imaginary line that circles the earth from the North and South pole through Greenwich and spearages the earth into the East and West Hemisphere
How many degrees are the N and S Hemisphere
How many degrees are the E and W hemisphere
How is the grid of the earth formed
with lines of latitude and longitude
What is latitude
distance in degrees N or S of the equator
measured in degrees+ 11 kilometers
What is longitude
distance in degrees E or W of the prime meridian
What is a map projection
lines that help to put the 3D Earth onto a flat map
What is the disadvantage of a map projection
it distorts the shapes of the land formations a little
What are 3 kinds of map projections
Mercator Projections
Equal Area Projections
Conic Projections
What is a Mercator Projection
All lines of latitude or longitude are portrayed as straight, parallel lines
What parts of a Mercator Projection are distorted
the landmasses near the equator are distorted only a little
more distorted near the poles
lines of latitude don't come together
What are the advantages of an equal area projection?
correctly show the reative size of landmasses
low distortion
BUT landmasses at edge are distorted
How are longitude and latitude lines portrayed on a conic projection?
lines of longitude seem straight
lines of latitude are curve
What is the advantage of a conic projection?
There is little distortion if used for a limited part of the Earth's surface.
How do computers help mapmakers
They autormatically make maps that could take 100's of hours by hand
What can computers do with the data that make up maps
the can store, process and display data
What is gititizing data
The process to convert the location of mappoints to numbers stored as 1's and 3'sw
Where is data collected from?
Satellites and the Global Positioning Sysme
How does a satellite collect information?
Satellite images are turned into pixels and then printed
What is a pixel
small dots that show different parts of earth in different color or brightness
What is a global positioning system
a network satellite that finds the longitude, latitude and elevation of points in the Earth's surface
What is a topogrpahic map
A map that shows surface feature of an area
HOw does a topographic map show surface features
It uses symbols to show what the earth would look like if you were looking down at it
What does a topographic map show
Elevation relief and slope of an area
What are contour lines
lines that represent elevation, relief and slope
usually measured in feet in the US
What is a contour interval
a change in elevation from contour line to contour line -- always the same for a particular map
What is an index contour
darker heavier lines, usually every 5 lines -- label elevation in round numbers
What are the steps for reading a topographic map
1. REad the scal
2. Read the symbols
3. Interpret the contour lines
How do you interpret contour lines?
1. begin with the labeled index contour
2. count the number of contour lines up and down from the index contour
3. if the lines are closely space -- steep incline
4. if the lines are widely space -- gentle incline
5.a closed loop wit no other lines inside indicates a hilltop
6. a closed loop with dashes -- hollow or depression
7.v shaped contour lines pointing down -- ridge
8. v shaped contour lines pointing up -- valley
What are uses for topographic maps
1.Engineers planing a highway
2. Deciding where to build store/housing
3.planninning hikes and bike trips