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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
intensity of radiation
the rate at which energy is radiated
how does temp. of a body of matter affect the wavelength?
higher temp=shorter wavelength at which maximum intensity occurs
where does the maximum intensity of radiation occur at the suns temp?
visible wavelenghts
insolation
the portion of the suns output of electromagnetic radiation that is received by earth at the outermost part of our atmosphere
intensity of insolation
the relative strength of the suns radiation that reaches a specific area of earth in a specific amount of time
where does the maximum intensity of insolation occur?
wavelengths of visible light
ozone
a form of oxygen gas in earths upper atmopshere that absorbs nearly all ultraviolet radiation
what reduces the amount of ozone?
chlorine and fluorine=human activities
what others gases found in the atmosphere can absorb long-wave infrared radiation?
water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane
what causes random reflection, or scattering, of insolation?
aersols-finely dispersed solids and liquids suspended in air
what do clouds do to light?
when clouds are present, much of the incoming solar energy is reflected back into space
what happens to insolation that is absorbed by earths surface?
it is converted into heat and tends to raise the temperature of the surface
when are the hottest days of theyear?
one month after maximum insolation
when does the north get 24 hours of daylight?
june 21-summer solstice
when does the south pole get 24 hours of daylight?
december 21
angle of incidence
the angle at which the insolation strikes earth's surface
how does the altitude of the sun vary?
with time of day, latitude, and season
the higher the sun is in the sky...
the more insolation is absorbed
the lower the sun is in the sky..
the more insolation reflected and less is absorbed
transpiration
a process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere as part of their life functions
why does water heat up and cool off mre slowly than an equal area of land?
water has a higher specific heat
when insolation strikes water surfaces, much of its energy is converted to stored heat as some water evaporates. thus, less energy is available to increase the water temp.
explain the greenhouse effect
the greenhouse cases absorbs the insolation that comes from earths surface as long infrared radiation. this warms the atmosphere and serves as a heat planket, which makes earth warm
greenhouse gases
carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and othes
greenhouse gases
carbon diozide, methane, water vapor, and others
global warming
an increase in earths average temps caused by an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmopshere
what is global warming causes by?
the burning of wood and fossil fuels
what could global warming cause?
rising sea levels caused by melting glaciers and ice
shifting of earths climatic zones
for each degree latitude north or south of the place where insolation is perpendicular to earths surface, the angle of incidence is..
one degree less
where is the intensity of insolation the greatest and when?
at the equator at each equinoz, and decreses w/ increasing latitude
where is insolation perpendicular to earths surface on june 21?
23 1/2 degrees north
what is the angle of the suns rays at noon on december 21 in NY?
24.5 degrees
what is the angle of the suns rays at noon in NY on the equinoxes?
48 degrees
what is the measure of the suns rays at noon in NY on june 21?
71.5 degrees
how does the suns altitude change throughout one day?
starts at zero degrees at sunrise, goes up, and goes back down to zero degrees at sunset
when does the maximum angle and intensity occur during the day?
at solar noon
duration of insolation
length of time that insolation is received each day..the time between sunrise and sunset
when does earths surface temp. rise?
when energy is being gained at a greater rate than it is being lost
when does earths surface temp. fall?
when energy is being lost faster than it is being gained
when is the hottest part of an average day?
sometime in the midafternoon
why?
bc after noon, earths surface continues to gain more energy from the sun than it loses
when do the coldest temps occur?
slightly after sunrise
why?
earths surface continues to lose heat throughout the night until after insolation begins at sunrise
HEAT BUDGET
THE REsult of the balance between the total amount of energy an object receibves and the total amount it emits or loses
what is heat budget a result of?
a radiation balance between the radiation from the sun and earths interior compared to the radiation earth gives off to space
what has sifted earths heat budget?
ice ages
interglacial periods?
periods between ice ages when earth was warmer than it is today
el nino
warming event that occurs every 2 to 10 years when the normally cold waters of the eastern pacific ocean off western south america are replaced with a cast area of warmer waters
what does el nino cauase?
qclimatic repercussions around the word-flooding, droughts, and heat waves
la nina
periods of exceptionally cold water in the eastern pacific ocean which also affect worldwide climate
sunspot
a darker region of the sun's visible surface
what happens when there is a large number of sunspots?
earth receives more insolation which shifts heat budget--high temps
what occuracnes correspond w/ the advances of the glaciers and can shift earths heat budget?
changes in earths orbit and axis tilt
how do volcanic eruptions shift earths heat budget?
aerosols such as volcanic ash and sulfur copounds go in the stratosphere and stay for months or years. they make earths atmopshere less transparent to insolation and reflect a greater than normal amount of insolaton back into space..causing cooler temps
3 human activities that cause shifts in heat budget
1) desertification-making deserts=warmer temps
2) deforestation-cutting down forects-higher temps. (trees absorbed insolation)
3) urbanization-clearing land of plants and trees to make buildings-produce greenhouse gases=global warming
what are the astronomical causes of the seasons?
the tilt of earths axis, the parallelism of earths axis, the revolution of the earth around the sun, and the small seasonal effect of earths elliptical orbit
when are the warmest temps in the northern hemisphere?
july-august
when are the coldest temps in the northern hemipshere?
jan-feb