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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are characteristics of inner ear disease?
1. tinnitus (ringing in ears)
2. vertigo (feeling as though surroundings are spinning when eyes are open)
what are some causes of tinnitus?
1. foreign body in ext canal
2. pulsating vascular tumors
3. meds (aspirin)
4. hearing loss
what are characteristics of benign positional vertigo?
1. sudden, episodic vertigo c/ head movement lasting for seconds
what is tx of benign positional vertigo?
1. epley maneuver
what are characteristics of meniere/s disease?
1. dilation of membranous labyrinth resulting from excess endolymph
2. classic triad=hearing loss, tinnitus, and episodic vertigo lasting several hours
what is tx for meniere/s disease?
1. medical: thiazide, anticholinergics, antihistamines
2. surgical: labyrinthectomy
what are characteristics of viral labyrinthitis?
1. preceded by viral respiratory illness
2. vertigo lasting days to weeks
what is tx for viral labyrinthitis?
1. meclizine
what are characteristics of acoustic neuroma?
1. CN VIII schwannoma, commonly affects vestibular portion but can also affect cochlea
2. si/sx: vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus
3. dx=MRI of cerebellopointine angle
what is tx for acoustic neuroma?
1. local radiation or surgical excision
where do 90% of epistaxis bleeds occur?
at Kiesselbach's plexus (anterior nasal septum)
what is the #1 cause of epistaxis in children?
trauma!! often induced by exploring digits!
what is epistaxis also precipitated by?
1. rhinitis
2. nasal nucosa dryness
3. septal deviation
4. bone spurs
5. alcohol
5. antiplatelet meds
6. bleeding diathesis
how do you tx epistaxis?
1. direct pressure
2. topical nawal vasoconstrictors (neosynephrine)
3. anterior nasal packing if unable to stop
5% of epistaxis occur where?
in posterior nasal cavity, requiring packing to occlude choana (the opening between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx)
What are the m/c sinues involved in sinusitis?
maxillary sinuses
what is dx for sinusitis?
CT scan showing inflammatory changes or bone destruction
whats are potentail complications of sinusitis?
1. meningitis
2. abscess formation
3. orbital infection
4. osteomyelitis
what organisms are m/c c/ acute bacterial sinusitis (<4 wks)?
1. streptococcus pneumoniae
2. haemphilus influenzae
3. moraxella catarrhalis
what are si/sx of acute bacterial sinusitis (<4 wks)?
1. purulent rhinorrhea
2. HA
3. pain on sinus palpation
4. fever
5. halitosis
6. anosmia
7. tooth pain
what is tx for acute bacterial sinusitis (<4 wks)?
1. bactrium (tMP/SMX)
2. amoxicillin
3. decongestants
what organisms are m/c c/ chronic bacterial sinusitis (>3 mons)?
1. bacteroides
2. S. aureus
3. Pseudomonas
4. Streptococcus spp.
what are si/sx of chronic bacterial sinusitis (>3 mons)?
same as for acute, but lasts longer, also otitis media in children
what is tx for chronic bacterial sinusitis (>3 mons)?
1. surgical correction of obstruction
2. nasal steroids
3. abx
what organisms are m/c c/ fungal sinusitis?
aspergillus, but
diabetics get MUCORmycosis!!!
*usually seen in immunocompromised pts
*tx with curgery and amphotericin!!!
what are si/sx of group A strep throat pharyngitis?
1. high fever
2. sever throat pain s/ cough
3. edematous tonsils c/ white or yellow exudate
4. cervical adenopathy
what the dx for group A strep throat pharyngitis?
1. H and P 50% accurage
2. antigen agglutinationkit for screening
3. throat swab culture is gold standard
what the tx for group A strep throat pharyngitis?
penicillin to prevent acute rheumatic fever!!!
what are si/sx of membranous (diphtheria) pharyngitis?
1. high fever
2. dysphagia
3. drooling
4. can cause respiratory failure (airway occlusion!)
what is dx for membranous (diphtheria) pharyngitis?
pathognomonic gray membrane on tonsils extending into throat
what is tx for membranous (diphtheria) pharyngitis?
what are si/sx for fungal pharyngitis (candida)?
1. dysphagia, sore throat c/ white, cheesy patches in oropharynx (oral thrush)
2. seen in AIDS and small children
what is dx for fungal pharyngitis (candida)?
clinical or endoscopy
what is tx for fungal pharyngitis (candida)?
1. nystatin liquid--swish and swallow
what are si/sx for adenovirus pharyngitis?
pharyngoconjunctival fever:
1. fever
2. red eye
3. sore throat

*clinical dx
*supportive tx
what are si/sx for mononucleosis (ebstein-barr virus) pharyngitis?
1. generalized lymphadenopathy
2. exudative tonsillitis
3. palatal petechiae
4. splenomegaly
what is dx for mononucleosis (ebstein-barr virus) pharyngitis?
1. positive heterophile anitbody
2. skin rash in pts given ampicillin
3. supportive tx
what are si/sx for herpangina (coxsackie A) pharyngitis?
1. fever
2. pharyngitis
3. body ache
4. tender vesicles along tonsils, uvual, and soft palate
5. clincial dx
6. supportive tx