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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 pathways of hearing??
Eustachian tube and Labyrinth.
How do you hold the ear for an otoscopic examination on an adult?
Pull the ear upward and backward.
How do you perform a Voice-whisper test??
Instruct the pt to use a finger to oclude one ear; stand 2 feet from pt's other ear and whisper a 2 syllable word;ask the pt to repeat the word;pt should be able to repeat the word.
The Rinne test is used for:
determining whether hearing loss is conductive or sensorineural.A tunning fork is used for this test. AC>BC
air conducted(AC) sound is heard...
via external auditory canal.
bone conducted(BC) sound is heard...
via the mastoid process
The Weber test is used for:
determining whether hearing loss is conductive or sensorineural. Sound should be perceived equally by both ears= "neg. weber test".
Where are the sphenoid sinuses located??
directly behind ethmoid sinuses.
Sensorineural hearing loss could be related to:
nerve degeneration.
Transillumination of sinuses is used for:
evaluation of frontal and maxillary sinuses.
Name the salivary glands:
Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular.
How do you assess cranial nerves IX,X,and XII??
IX and X: have the pt say "ah" and watch the uvula rise symmmetrically.
XII: ck for syringo bulbia because it causes hypoglossal nerve paralysis.
Risk factors for oral cancer:
male gender, african american, >40yrs old, smoking(ie.chewing), excessive alcohol use.
Risk factors for otitis media:
<2yrs of age;frequent URI; cold weather;males;caucasians, native americans, alaskan natives;family hx;smoky environment;day care;bottle fed;down syndrome;craniofacial disorders.
Risk factors for hearing loss:
Noise exposure;smoking; ototoxic drugs; heart disease; aging;tumors;trauma;meniere's disease; tympanic membrane perforatiion; barotrauma.
assessing "patency" of the nose:
the sense of smell (CN I) is evualated during testing of cranial nerves.
Physical assessment of the oral cavity should include the following:
Breath,lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, gums and teeth, hard and soft palates, throat, and TMJ.(temp.mand.joint)
findings that might be noted on a pt with poor oral hygiene:
gingivitis, hallatosis, swelling of the gums.
What common problems are often noted in hearing and taste sensation of the Elderly??
diminished sense of taste (=not eating as much),avoidance of social events due to hearing loss, dysphagia.
Grading of Tonsils:
1+ tonsils are visible;
2+ tonsils are between the pillars and uvula;
3+ tonsils are touching uvula;
4+ one or both tonsils extend to the midline of the oropharynx.
Typical changes that occur in the ears and mouth with aging:
Presbycusis, tastes diminishes, smell dimishes, loss of teeth, saliva decreases
The primary site of oral cancer:
on the lateral surfaces of the tongue.
Examples of benign oral conditions:
oral hairy leukoplakia;torus mandibularis;scrotal tongue;torus palatinus;Fordyce's spots;hemangioma(of the tongue)
Prebyscusis:
hearing loss; generally in older adults
Ossicles-sound
malleus, incus,stapes
cerumen
wax produced in ear canal
eustachian tube:
air channel connecting to middle ear to nasopharynx for equillibrium and air pressure.
paranasal sinuses
air filled spaces in cranium bone lines with mucous membranes.
Stensen's ducts:
openings from parotid glands just opposite of molars.
Wharton's ducts:
openings from submaxillary glands, located on either side of the frenulum.