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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church adn called for the separation of Church and State
Articles of Confederation: powers
delegated most of the powers (to tax, regulate trade, adn draft troops) to individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money.
Articles of Confederation:
federal gov't had so little power that it coudn't keep country united
Articles of Confederation:
settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance
established present federal government of US and outlined gov'ts powers. can by changed with amendments
Constitution: Checks and Balances
each of the 3 branches of gov't "checks" (i.e., blocks) the power of the toher 2, so no one branch can become too powerful
Constitution: Separation of power
powers of gov't divided between 3 branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary
James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
proposals for effective gov't became Virginia Plan
drafted most of language of Constitution
Great Compromise
At Const. Conv., larger states wanted Virginia Plan (pop.) smaller states wanted NJ Plan (equal).
Made House and Senate
Slavery and Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause
South's slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after teh ratification of the Const. Slaves considered 3/5 of a person when determing the state pop.
Supporters of Constitution
Federalists - mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy.
Jay, Hamilton, Madison, wrote Federalist Papers
Opponents of the Constitution
Anti-federalists - commoners who were afriad of strong central gov't and being taken advantage of.
Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams
Bill of Rights adopted, 1791
1st 10 amendment to the Constitution
guarantees basic rights
Virginia Declaration of Rights
George Mason wrote teh notion that basic human rights should not be violated by govts.
President George Washington
established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting term to 2 years
against political parties adn strove for political balance in govt by appointing political adversaries to govt positions
Washington's Farewell Address
warned against dangers of political parties and foreign alliances
Federalists: Philosophies
Fed - strong central govt, strong army, industry, loose interp
Democratic-Republicans: Philosophies
weak central govt, state and individaul rights, strict interp of the Constitution
President Jefferson
believed in less aristocratic presidency. wanted to reduce federal spending and govt interference in everyday life. was Democratic-Republican (originally anti-federalist) so he believed in strict interp
Louisana Purchase: reasons, Jefferson
1803 - U.S. purchased land from Mi River to Rocky Mts from Napoleon fro $15 million
Causes of War of 1812
British impressmen, seizure of neutral American trading ships, reasons given by te War Hawks (British were inciting Indains to attack Americans, war would allow US to seize the northwest posts, Florida, possibly Canada)
War of 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence
U.S. success in the War of 1812 increase nationalism. cut off America's access to British manufactured goods and forced the US to develop the means to produce those goods on their own
Chief Justice John Marshall: decision
Federalist whose decisions on teh US Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and est. the judiciary as the branch of govt equal to the legislative and executive.
Marbury vs. Madison
John Marshall established judicial review, allow SC to delcare laws unconstitutional
National Road (Cumberland Road)
first highway built by fed govt.
Constructed during 1825-1850.
Stretched from PA to Illinois
major overland shipping route and a n important connection b/w North and West
Internal improvements
govt's programs for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads to connect the stae adn promote interstate commerce.
dispute over this - constitution did not say fed gov could fun
Erie Canal, Dewitt Clinton
1825 - Erie Canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting NY to the Great Lakes. was approved in 1817 with support of NY's Governor, Dewitt Clinton. helped connect North and West.
Supreme Court: McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819 - decision upheld the power fo Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax the federal govt