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30 Cards in this Set

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Music of the Medieval Period was
Gregorian Chant
Gregorian Chant

Origins: myth and truth
myth: Pope Gregory I - they think he wrote it all - may have codified some
truth: Pope Gregory II - codified more
Gregorian Chant

Regional Dialects

years
Byzantine
Ambrosian (Milan)
Mozarabic (Spain)
Sarum (England)
Old Roman
Gallican (Frankish Lands)

400's-700's
800's - who codified Gregorian Chant
Charlemagne

rational order and system
What was the purpose of Gregorian Chant?
Decoration of Sacred Text
-Liturgical Function
Liturgy...
most was spoken
some single-tone reciting
melody - only most special parts of text
What are the two main worship services?
1. The Mass - reenactment of Last Supper
2. The Hours (or Divine Offices)
-performed by monks in monastaries
-3 hour intervals - chant psalms etc.
The Hours - which two do we need to know
Matins - before daybreak (most treasured melodies)

Vespers - sunset (most treasured melodies)
The Mass is divided into two texts

what are they
which changes
when were they decorated
Poper - changes each Sunday
decorated during Early Medieval

Ordinary - never changes
decorated during Renaissance
Gregorian Chant: Kyrie
know SHMRF
What is used to discuss music

what does each mean
SHMRF

sound
harmony
media
rhythm
form
Ways of classifying chant
Manner of Performance
Melody/Text Relationships
Classifying Chant

Manner of Performance (3)
responsorial - soloist 1st phrase, smaller choir continues
call and response

antiphonal - group against group
call and response

direct
one group start to finish
Classifying chant

Melody/Text Relationships (3)
Syllabic - most text
primary one note per syllable

melismatic
many notes per syllable
melismas
text they really want to emphasize

neumatic
cross between syllabic and melismatic
Who was the greatest figure of medieval times
Hildegard von Bingen
Hildegard von Bingen

daughter of...
what did she experience as a child
what did she found
male/female?
works:
daughter of noble couple - promised to church - couldn't afford dowry
experienced visions
founded own convent
female
recorded her visious and prophecies
religious poetry
chant
the "Alleluia"
from proper of mass
melismatic
reponsorial
structure
Alleluia Verse Alleluia (repeated)
solo to * solo choral
choral
Visual arts in the time of Charlemagne
illuminated manuscripts
ivory carvings
carolingian architecture
romanesque architecture
What was Charlemagne's great quest
order
illuminated manuscripts
Charlemagne valued literary works
wanted people educated
illuminated manuscripts

made from

who influenced decoration style?
parchment

Celts mostly, Arabs some
Byzantine and Roman
"Gospel Book of Charlemagne"
icons, symbols - Christian
roman influence - togas
attempt at 3-D
Charlemagne architecture
focused on Palace at Aachen
embellished already existing monastaries
tried to merge roman imperialism with christian destiny
Romanesque architectural style
purposefully larger than earlier buildings
made of heavy stones
arches
big exterior walls-allowed larger interior
exterior sculpture -very decorative
portal above door decorated the most
Pentecost
1st crusade supposed to start here
2nd crusade started here
3rd crusade started here
- effect new mission of apostles
hands emitting rays of light
Christ's posture ascending
high relief
mandorla - halo
people of the world around
archaic system of scale
"the Song of Roland"
know info
Gothic architecture

the significance of Paris
1150-1300 - Paris emerging as cultural and political center

comingling of people of genius
How does Gothic style begin?
Abbot Suger - wanted to remodel church
wanted it to be the center of power for the region
What were Abbot Suger's ideas?
windows
establishmen of chorus
completely different entrance
stained glass windows
enabled use of light
flying butresses
features of gothic style
thin walls
glass
pointed arches meet w/ vault
spires
gargoyles on exterior
enormous size
intricate detail