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23 Cards in this Set

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a polynucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid that does not code information for protein synthesis and is removed before translation of messenger RNA OR Segments of DNA that don't carry any instructions for protein making
Molecular chain of amino acids [Same thing as a protein but since proteins are organized as collections of amino acids in a chain known as a polypeptide, this is another term]
a chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules...this is how Proteins, Carbohydrates and many other macromolecules are made (all?)
Because introns are like christmas tree lights, they can be plugged and unplugged to create different patterns of exon lights. Actual definition of exons: a polynucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid that codes information for protein synthesis and that is copied and spliced together with other such sequences to form messenger RNA
First biological thing--made in the lab under a number of different kinds of conditions in the lab...if you have the right number of lipids you can put them in water and they'll compose a membrane
(proto-cells) polypeptides, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), polysaccharides (polymerized sugars)--they self-assemble into a cell-like object; when an enzyme is inserted the coacervates take those enzymes into themselves, the enzymes work and the molecular tool (the enzyme) has gotten us really close to something we may call living
Process one kind of biological molecule into another, we call it the substrate.
Exon Theory of Genes
a theory that holds that introns are extremely ancient characteristics of genes and that early genes were created through the intron-mediated shuffling of exons. The theory has existed since the late seventies.
a spherical shell that is usually made of a biodegradable or resorbable plastic polymer, that has a very small diameter usually in the micron or nanometer range, and that is often filled with a substance (as a drug or antibody) for release as the shell is degraded
any of various polypeptides which can be obtained by suitable polymerization of mixtures of amino acids
requiring complex organic compounds of nitrogen and carbon (as that obtained from plant or animal matter) for metabolic synthesis
needing only carbon dioxide or carbonates as a source of carbon and a simple inorganic nitrogen compound for metabolic synthesis
a molecule of RNA that functions as an enzyme (as by catalyzing the cleavage of other RNA molecules)
capable of achieving photosynthesis, the process of producing energy from sunlight; the actual process is synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of light sometimes including the near infrared or near ultraviolet; especially : the formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in chlorophyll-containing cells (as of green plants) exposed to light involving a photochemical release of oxygen through the decomposition of water followed by various enzymatic synthetic reactions that usually do not require the presence of light
attached, lithified sedimentary growth structures, accretionary away from a point or limited surface of initiation. A variety of stromatolite morphologies exist including conical, stratiform, branching, domal, and columnar types. Stromatolites are commonly thought to have been formed by the trapping, binding, and cementation of sedimentary grains by microorganisms, especially cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae).
Chemosynthetic Bacteria
bacteria that obtain energy required for metabolic processes from exothermic oxidation of inorganic or simple organic compounds without the aid of light
synthesis of organic compounds (as in living cells) by energy derived from chemical reactions
an artificial vesicle that is composed of one or more concentric phospholipid bilayers and is used especially to deliver microscopic substances (as DNA or drugs) to body cells
organisms constituted of cells with nuclei and membrane-bound organelles. ex. all other kingdoms (animal, plant, protist, fungi)
organisms containing cells without nuclei And membrane-bound organelles. ex. kingdom of monera
earliest formed in the growth of an individual or organ (we use it to say "primordial soup," which is the supposed liquid of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen + possibly sulfur that existed in the early earth, and then interacted with clay)
a thin layer that separates various cellular structures or organs. It usually includes lipid bilayer reinforced by proteins and other macromolecules
a specialized cellular part (as a mitochondrion or ribosome) that is analogous to an organ