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28 Cards in this Set

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Nature Vs Nurture
debate re genetic contributions vs environmental factors in determining dev'l outcomes and pheno traits. mostly intraction b/ween 2.

Role of primary exp in later dev., Env. antecedents of beh'r & cognition.
genotype VS phenotype
geno- charcteristics that determined by inof coded on genes.
pheno- observable and measurable char, due to interaction of genetics/env.
critical and sensitive peroids
critical- dev during wch the attainment of a dev'l milestone depends on the presence of particular env'l stimulation. lernez- bird imprinting
sensitive- is more flexible & refers to the optimal peroid of dev
phenylketonuria- inherited disease that adversely affects metabolism and CNS dev.leading to mental retard
Early dietary intervention can prevent MR
Down syndrome
autosomal abnormality- extra chromonsome on 21st pr. = MR and physical abnormalities.
ecological model
Bronfenbrenner- env'l influences on dev 4 interacting systems
micr0- immediate
meso- interconnection of micro
ero- env not in direct contact
macro- culture * subculture
drugs, toxins, env agents that interfere w/ normal prenatal dev. exposure likely to cause abnormalities or death during embryonic stage.
brain development
the cortex is the least dev at birth; brain dev continues until early teens.
# neurons grown, increase in dendritic branching and myelination.
principles of teratogenic effects
damage to dev'g ind varies w/time of exposure
zygote- hi risk of spontanious abortion
embryo- cns and limb damage
fetus- cognitive dev
ea terat. agent has specific impact
not all ind react the same way to terta.
piaget, central process in cog dev by wch a child's mental structures achieve a better fit w/ exteranl reality. Involves the complementary processes of assimilation (interprets new info in existing schemas) and accomodation (schemas are modified to take into account new understanding
cognitive dev- Piaget
due to combination of biological muturation and interactions w/ the env. 4 stages sensorimoter (b-2ys) dev object permanence; peroperational (2-7) increase in symbolic thought (animisn, magic), concrete (7-12) ability to conserve, (reversibility,decentration); formal (12+) hypotheical and deduction
zone of proximal dev
Vygotsky - gap bet what a child can do alone and what can do with help from adult. Teaching most effective here.
language dev
several predictable stages; cooing/babbling (1yr), holophrastic and telegraphic speech (2y, rapid voabulary growth and mastery (3-6Y)
advantages- =cogntive flexibility & metalinguistic awareness. research- kids attend hi-quality bilin school do better in english mastery than monling
attachment phenommena
clear signs of attachment to the primary caregiver are not usually evident until 6-7 mths
signs 1. sep anx. -6mths-14/18mths
2. stranger anx 8/10 mths- 18 mths
patterns of attachment infant
"strange sit" researach
4 attachment patterns
secure (explore env. stranger friendly w/mom- moms r emotional secure & sensitive)
anx/avoidant (uninterested in env, not worry mom gone, not stranger wary, moms r impatient, unrespon/overly resp)
anx/resistant (anx w/ mom, distress when gone, ambivalent when return. Moms r inconsistent) disorg/disor ( alternate bet avoid and seeking- abusive)
Patterns of attachemnt adult
secure-automous value attach relats, secure relat w/ a paren, able to intergrate both +/- exp- child r secure attachment
dismissig- devalue relat attach, guarded- children tend to be avoidantly attached
preoccupied- confused re attachments, enmeshed fam origin, children r anx/resist
unresolved- exp trauma and early losses, neg/dysfunctional relats- child r disorg/disorit
Trauam abuse/DD
moral dev (Piaget)
2 stages
heteronomous (rules are unchangeable)
autononmous- (rules are alterable)
HA 2 stages
moral development (Kohlberg)
realted to cog dev & soc'l perspective taking
3 levels w/ 2 stages
perconventional-consequences of an act(punishment/obedience;instrumental hedontistic)
conventional-maintian existing laws (good/bad boy/girl, authority/social order-maintaining)
postconventional- self chosen priniciples (social contract & ind rights, universal ehtical principles

key assumptions of MD
a) children pass thru the stages in an invariant sequence, satge 5/6 not reached by most people
b) an outgrowth of cog dev
c) ea stage reps an organized whole

more moral reasoning than actual behaviors
ind basic beh'r style, largely genetic determined and a bulding block for personality
Basic temperament qualities are - activity level, approach/withdrawal, and adaptability.
psychosexual development
Freud- 5 stages
oral (birth-1yr)
anal (1-3
phallic (3-6)
Latency (6 -puberty)
gential (post puberty)
fixation at any stage due to over-or-undergratification of sexual impulses can result in psychopathology
psychosocial development
Erikson - personality dev over life span
8 stages
basic trust/mistrust (b-1yr)
autonmony/shame (1-3)
initiative/guilt (3-6)
industry/inferiority (6-pub)
identity/identity confusion (adolescence)
intimacy/isolation (yong adult)
generativity/stagnation (mid adult)
ego integrity/despair (old age)
parenting styles
4 styles
authoriative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved
authoriative has best outcome,
uninvolved = antisocial/delinquency
indentity statuses
id dev in adolescence = 4 stages
identity diffusion (don;t know, no id crisis yet), identity foreclosure (no id crisis, parental suggestion), identity moratorium ( id crisis, explore dif options/beliefs) and identity achievement (resolved crisis, committed)
aggression and parental beh'rs
parenting beh'r:
rejection, harsh discipline, lax monitoring
Patterson's coercive family interaction model focuses on the role of imitation & reinforcement
risk and resilence
factors that seem to protect high-risk chldren from psychopathology
-escpecially social responsibility in infancy & the availability of a consistent caregiver
aging and intelligence
fluid intelligence declines w/ increading age, crystallized intell remains stable
age-related declines in info processing speed may underlie many cog & perceptual decrements that accompany increasing age
aging and memory
recent long-term mem (secondary) shows the greatest age-related decline; other aspects of mem adversely affected - working mem, explicit mem, episodic mem