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44 Cards in this Set

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Paul of Samosata
monarchist Bishop of Antioch, condemned in 268, uses term homoousios meaning of one substance - no distinction, word later becomes important
Monarchianism - modalist
Emphasizes the oneness, monarchy of God, widespread, archetype - Sabellius (220s), only one God - God the Father, 2 manifestations/modes - Son and light/sun, no separate persons, same one person manifested in different mode, no vocabulary of distinction for God, reaction against Logos Christology of Justin/Irenaeus, worried that this talking isn't monotheistic anymore
Monarchianism - dynamic, adoptionism
emphasizes oneness, monarchy of God, limited movement, theology of in-dwelling, only one God, Christ adopted/ indwelt at baptism, no vocabulary of distinction, Theodotus the cobbler(ca. 190), reaction against Logos Christology of Justin/Irenaeus, worried that this talking isn't monotheistic anymore
Diocletian, the Great Persecution
set off donatism, 303-305 AD, Lapsed controversy
Athanasius
298-373, bishop, Patriarch of Alexandria, wrote life of Antony and orations against Arians, offers alternative to Arius' position in rhetorical style, Arians misuse Scripture, thus he uses scriptural exegesis, primary argument - homoousios not in Scripture, Son is genuine/consubstantial image which originates from Father, fully divine - image of begetting, theology of image - importance of homoousios - captures scriptural theology by offering a term for an image not created, God is directly involved in our salvation, not indirectly through a creature
Constantine - edict of Milan, 312
declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution of Christianity. The Edict was issued in the names of the Western tetrarch Constantine the Great, and Licinius, the Eastern tetrarch.
Arius
318, Alexandria, interested in defending God's unity, uncompromised montheism, fundamental premis: absolute uniqueness and transcendance of God, unoriginate source of all reality, such a unique being can't be communicated in any means including generation, indivisible, unchangeable, thus God's word must be a creature with a beginning, not co-eternal with the Father
Eusebius of Caesarea
275-339, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church, heavily influenced by Origen, wrote Historia Ecclesiastica, present the history of the Church from the apostles to his own time - special emphasis on successions of bishops in principal sees, history of Christian teachers, heresies, martyrdoms
Nicaea (325)
Synod, pope sends legates - sets precedent, bishops agreed on creed, homoousios - with the one through whom things were made, he is creator, no distinction between hypostasis and sustance, requires further development thus controversy later
homoousios
used by Athanasius in his theology of image - term for image not created - preserves mystery for our contemplation and growth in Scripture and mystery rather than cramping the Gospel
homoiousios
Semi Arians taught that Christ was similar (homoios) to the Father, or of like substance (homoiousios), but still subordinate
anomoios
Son is dislike the Father
Eunomius of Cyzicus
died 393, philosopher and leader of anomoean Arians (later Arian movement), defends uniqueness of God with oversimplification/one-move argument, about relationship of Father to Son - unlike = anomoean, radical Arians, unbegotten and begotten are different essences, avoids messy Scriptural testimony
the Cappadocians -Gregory of Nazianzus
4th century, author of 2nd/3rd theological orations, high rhetoric, criticize Eunomius for taking language too literally thus blocks proclamation, neo-nicene position, distinction is not in the substance, begotten doesn't refer to essence, rather to different level of predication, use hypostasis term - translated 'person' - trinitarian doctrine meant not to block but permit Scriptural proclamation, doesn't reduce God to formula, thus equality of Father and Son
Council of Constantinople (381)
2nd ecumenical council, called by Theodosius I to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy, established that the Holy Spirit must be of the same essence (ousia) as the Father. This is a reference to the homoousia language of Nicaea.
Julian "the Apostate"
Roman emperor who ruled from 361 to 363.called "The Apostate" because he converted from Christianity to Paganism. He suppressed the persecution of pagans and destruction of temples that had followed Constantine I's official encouragement of Christianity.
Damasus
Pope from 366, presided over the Council of Rome in 382, at which the modern Catholic canon of scripture was first set down. active in defending the Church against threat of schisms. In two Roman synods (368 and 369) he condemned Apollinarianism and Macedonianism, and sent legates to the Council of Constantinople that was convoked in 381 to address these heresies.
Ambrose
340-397, bishop of milan, combatted arianism
Theodosius I
emperor who called the 2nd ecumenical council in Constantinople 381, declared christianity official state religion
Manichees/Mani/Manichaeism
founded by babylonian mani in 3rd century, dualism, two natures that existed from the beginning: light and darkness. there is no omnipotent good power.problem of evil by denying the infinite perfection of God and postulating the two equal and opposite powers mentioned previously, human person is seen as a battleground for these powers, the good part is the soul and the bad part is the body
Antony
251-356, hermit, desert father, life of Antony written by Athanasius, interprets Antony's life against philosophical ideals and revising them from a scriptural point of view, makes Antony accessible to non-Christians, uses theology of struggle, growth - battles w/ demons, apotheia - passionlessness
Pachomius
290-346, author of Rules, created cenobitic - community based - monasticism (as opposed to eremitic - solitary/hermit), monastery was like little city, discreetly arranged in tasks, communal prayer, no real theory of community life or benefit of living together, just many people doing their own ascetic work together
John Cassian
360-433 one of desert fathers, disciple and friend of John Chrysostom, His foundation, the Abbey of St. Victor, a complex of monasteries for both men and women, was one of the first such institutes in the west, and served as a model for later monastic development. Cassian's abbey and writings influenced St. Benedict, two major spiritual works, the Institutes and the Conferences, In these, he codified and transmitted the wisdom of the Desert Fathers of Egypt
John Chrysostom
Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople, Doctor of the Church, revised prayers and rubrics of the Divine Liturgy, or celebration of the Holy Eucharist, important theologian of eastern christianity?
Antiochene christology/Logos-homo ("Word-man") and its representatives, Diodore, Theodore of Mopsuestia, John of Antioch, Theodoret
Response to Arianism, defends how Jesus (who suffered, grew, ignorant) was homoousios with unchangeable, impassible Father, theology of indwelling word - human being Jesus is indwelt by the word by act of will/grace, 2 subjects - one indwelt and one indwelling, model of any holy person, only differing in degree, indwelling from moment of conception, Christology predicated on growth, development, word is separate nature - 2 nature Christology
Alexandrian christology/Logos-sarx ("Word-flesh") and its representatives, Athanasius, and in the heretical extreme Apollinaris of Laodicea
Response to Arianism, defends how Jesus (who suffered, grew, ignorant) was homoousios with unchangeable, impassible Father, incarnation vocabulary, Logos doesn't suffer in eternal preexistence but does suffer in flesh, solidarity between God and humans, God's empathy for us, Cyril - one nature after the union and that of the enfleshed word
Dioscorus
succeeds Cyril in 444, wanted one nature as doctrine, dominated at synod in Ephesus 449 - robber synod
Theotokos
term for "god bearer" or "mother of god" supported by Alexandrians especially Cyril, opposed by Antiochenes, affirmed in 3rd ecumenical council, Ephesus 431, to call Mary the Birth-giver of God is to affirm the fullness of his Incarnation, and by extension, the salvation of humanity.
Cyril of Alexandria
376-444, Patriarch of Alexandria, antagonist of Nestorius, author of 12 Anathemas - provocative, offends moderate Antiochenes, argues for position of 'hypostatic union' - Jesus is one unified subject, a personal union
hypostatic union
refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ: simultaneously God and Man.in Christ one person subsists in two natures, the divine and the human.supported by Cyril, definitively established by the Council of Chalcedon (451), which declared that in Christ the two natures, each retaining its own properties, are united in one subsistence and one person
Nestorius
Constantinople patriarch, 428, Antiochene, attacks theotokos - "God bearer" "Mother of God" - against populace, teaches Nestorianism - Mary is mother of Christ - the second person, not the mother of divine person, immediate antagonist was Cyril
Formula of Union
433, signed by Cyril and John of Antioch, Cyril concedes anathemas and one nature expression, gains theotokos, condemnation of Nestorius, clearly identifies subject of God-human as eternal Word, case of faith seeking understanding but unstable agreement
Council of Ephesus (431)
Held by Cyril despite lateness of Antiochenes, Nestorius anathematized, deposed, papal legates endorsed Cyril's council as 3rd ecumenical council, canonizes Nicene Creed as orthodoxy, 12 anathemas weren't canonized
Robber Synod/latrocinium
synod in Ephesus 449, to hear Eutyches' case, Dioscorus dominated - wanted one nature as doctrine, latrocinium
Eutyches
Alexandrian, brings matters to a head, denounced, accused of heresy by Flavian in Synod of Constantinople 448, Christ's nature not consubstantial with our own, called multum imprudens by Pope Leo , Christ is two natures after incarnation in one hypostasis
Monophysitism
from the Greek monos meaning 'one, alone' and physis meaning 'nature', Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. - two types Eutychianism - human nature of Christ was essentially obliterated by the divine, Apollinarianism - christ had body, and human living principle, but logos took place of thinking principle
Leo I
Pope responded to Flavian 449 with famous "tome" letter - based on Augustinian Christology of one nature, two persons, subject of Godhead is the divine word, the son exists without mixture or confusion, western influence
Council of Chalcedon (451)
called by emperor marcion, formed by Leo's tome, composed formula as interpretation of creed, only one subject in Jesus - the eternal word of God, affirms compositional Christology of Antioch - 2 natures one hypostasis/person, affirmation of Theotokos term, communicatio idiomata - sharing of properties - each nature shares in properties of the other - central idea to preserve: God suffers in Christ, doctrine of God's love in Christ
Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus)
347-420, translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin
Augustine
354-428, bishop of Hippo 396- author of On Christian Doctrine, Confessions, father of western spirituality?
Donatism
primary disagreement was over the treatment of those who forsook their faith during the Persecution (303–305 AD) of Diocletian.They refused to accept the sacraments and spiritual authority of the priests and bishops who had fallen away from the faith during the persecution.Augustine campaigned against them throughout his tenure as bishop of Hippo saying that it was the office of priest, not the personal character of the incumbent, that gave validity to the celebration of the sacraments.
Pelagius
born 354, reformer who denied the doctrine of Original Sin from Adam and declared a heretic, Augustine writes against Pelagius strongly affirming the existence of original sin, the need for infant baptism, the impossibility to live without sin without Christ, and the neccessity of Christ's grace
Cappadocians - Gregory of Nyssa
dies 395, author of 'On not three Gods' in style of letter, no disctinction in nature, undifferentiated, characteristic of neo-nicene theology, causality is name of relation-way to distinguish one person from another, only one action, only one savior - God - can't be divided, savior is name of action/operation, not 3 principles of salvation, unity of action reflects and interprets unity of nature
Apollinarus
Extreme Alexandrian Nicene, systematizes/simplifies Athanasius - nothing but Word-flesh, Logos takes over human mind, spirit so that Jesus = flesh + word, thus not human being, sparks elaboration into Christological controversy?