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224 Cards in this Set

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acidemia
increased acidity of the blood
acidosis
the accumulation of acid and hydrogen ions or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate content) in the blood and body tissues, decreasing the pH
alkalemia
increased pH (abnormal alkalinity) of the blood
alkalosis
a pathologic condition due to accumulation of base in, or loss of acid from, the body
ampere
the base SI unit of electric current strength, defined in terms of the force of attraction between two parallel conductors carrying current
anemia
reduction below normal of the number of erythrocytes, quantity of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in the blood; a symptom of various diseases and disorders
arterial
pertaining to an artery or to the arteries
ASA
America Society of Anesthesiologist
attentuate
to render weak or thin
axis
a line through the center of the body, or about which a structure revolves; a line around which body parts are arranged
*the second cervical vertebra
BMI
Body Mass Index
bone
the hard, rigid form of connective tissue constituting most of the skeletion of vertebrates, composed chiefly of calcium salts
*specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells) forming the skeleton
BP
Blood Pressure
bradypneic
abnormal slowness of breathing
cancer
a neoplastic disease the natural course of which is fatal. Cancer cells, unlike benign tumor cells, exhibit the properties of invasion and are highly anaplastic. The term includes the two broad categories of carcinoma and sarcoma, but is often used synonymously with the former.
carbon dioxide
an odorless, colorless gas, CO2, resulting from oxidation of carbon, and formed in the tissues and eliminated by the lungs; used in some pump oxygenators to maintain blood carbon dioxide tension.
cartilage
a specialized, fibrous connective tissue present in adults, and forming the temporary skeleton in the embryo, providing a model in which the bones develope, and constituting a part of the orgainism's growth mechanism; the three most important types are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage
cirrosis
a group of liver diseases marked by interstitial inflammation of the liver, loss of normal hepatic architecture, fibrosis, and nodular regeneration
clubbing
proliferation of soft tissue around the ends of fingers and toes, without osseous change
conduction
conveyance of energy, as of heat, sound, or electricity
convection
the act of conveying or transmission, specifically trasmission of heat in a liquid or gas by bulk movement of heated particles to a cooler area
dehydration
removal of water from a substance; the condition that results from excessive loss of body water
dentist
a person with a degree in dentistry and authorized to practice dentistry
desflurane
an inhalational anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
divericulum
a circumscribed pouch or sac occuring normally or created by hernitation of the lining mucous membrane through a defect in the muscular coat of a tubular organ
dwarf
an abnormally short person
dyspneic
labored or difficult breathing
emergent
coming out from a cavity or another part.
*or... pertaining to an emergency
encephalopathy
any degenerative brain tissue
force
energy or power; that which originates or arrests motion
fraction
the portion of something larger. In chemistry, one of the separable constituents of a substance
gynecologist
a person skilled in the branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the genital tract in women
helium
chemical element at number two. It is obtained from natural gas. Used as a diluent for other gases, particularly with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehiclefor general anesthetics
hematocrit
the volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood; also, the apparatus of procedure used in its determination
hemoglobin
the oxygen-carrying pigment of erythrocytes, formed by devoping erythrocytes in teh bone marrow; a hemoprotein made up of four different polypeptide globin chains that contain between 141 and 146 amino acids.
hemmorage
the escape of blood from the vessels; bleeding
hiatal hernia
protrusion of any structure through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm
hypercapnia
excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
hypercarbia
hypercapnia, excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea
abnormal increase in depth and rate of respiration
hypertension
persistently high arterial blood pressure; it may have no known cause of may be associated with other diseases
hypocapnia
deficiency of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypocarbia
hypocapnia, dificiency of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoglycemia
deficiency of glucose concentration in the blood, which may lead to hypothermia, headache, and more serious neurological symptoms
hypokalemia
abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, which may lead to neuromuscular and renal disorders
hypokalemia
abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, which may lead to neuromuscular and renal disorders
hyponatremia
deficiency of sodium in the blood
hypotension
abnormally low blood pressure
hypoxemia
deficient oxygenation of the blood
hypoxia
reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood
icterus
jaundice
isoflurane
a potent inhalational anesthetic similar to enflurane, used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
jaundice
icterus, yellowness of the skin, scleras, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments
laparoscopy
examination or treatment of the interior of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope (an endoscope for examining the perioneal cavity
ligament
a band of fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages, serving to support and strengthen joints.
mediate
1) indirect; accomplished by means of an intervening medium
2) to serve as an intermediate agent
midget
old term for normal dwarf
muscle
an organ that by contraction produces movement of an animal organism
Nitrogen (N)
chemical element at number 7. It forms about 78 percent of the atmosphere and is a constituent of all proteins and nucleic acids
nitrous oxide
a gas, N2O, used as a general anesthetic , usually in combination with another agent
obesity
an increase in body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat
obstetrician
one who practices obstetrics (the branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy, labor, and puerperium)
ohm
the SI unit of electrical resistance, being that of a resistor in which a current of 1 ampere is produced by a potential difference of 1 volt
opthalmologist
a physician who specializes in ophthalmology (the branch of medicine dealing with the eye, including its anatomy, physiology, and pathology)
otolaryngologist
one who specializes in the branch of medicine dealing with disease of the ear, nose, and throat
oxygen
chemical element at number 8. It constitutes about 20 per cent of atmosphereic air, is the essential agent in the respiration of plants and animals, and is necessary to support combustion.
PACU
post-anesthesia care unit
polycythemia
an increase in the total cell mass of the blood
radiation
1) divergence from a common center
2) a structure made up of divergent elements, as one of the fiber tracts in the brain
3)energy transmitted by waves through space of through some medium, usually referring to electromagneticradiation, when used without a modifier. By extension, a stream of particles, such as electrons or alpha particles.
rales
crackles; a discontinuos sound consisting of a series of short sounds, heard during inhalation
reflux
a backward or return flow
respiratory rate
the number of movements of the chest wall per unit of time, indicative of inhalation and exhalation
si
International Systems of Units; any of the International System of Units adopted in 1960 at the Eleventh General Conference of Weights and Measurements
tachycardia
abnormally rapid heart rate
tachypneic
very rapid respirations
tendon
a fibrous cord of connective tissue continouos with fibers of a muscle and attaching the muscle to bone or cartilage
urologist
one who specializes in the medical area concerned with the urinary system in the male and female and the genital organs of the male
volt (V)
the SI unit of electric potential or electromotive force, equal to 1 watt per ampere, or 1 joule per coulomb
vital signs
the pulse, respiration, and temperature
residual volume (RV)
the amount of gas remaining in the lung at the end of a maximal exhalation
myocardial ischemia
deficiency of blood in the heart, usually due to funtional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel
myocardial infarction
(MI), gross necrosis of the myocardium, due to interruption of the blood supply to the area
Heart rate
(HR)
*pulse rate-the number of pulseations noted in a peripheral artery per unit of time
Pulse rate
the number of pulseations noted in a peripheral artery per unit of time
abduction
the state of being abducted (to draw away from the median plane, or (the digits) from the axial line of a limb)
acromegaly
abnormal enlargement of the limbs, caused by hupersecretion of growth hormone after maturity
acute
having severe symptoms and a short course
adduction
the state of adducting, the state of being adducted (to draw toward the median plane or (in the digits)toward the axial line of a limb
arytenoid cartilage
one of the two pyramid-shaped cartilages of the larynx
astrocytoma
a tumor composed of astrocytes, the most common type of primary brain tumor and also found throughout the central nervous system, classified on the basis of histology or in order of malignancy
atlas
the first cervical vertebra
axis
* a line through the center of the body, or about which a structure revolves; a line around which body parts are arranged
*the second cervical vertebra
capnogram
a real-time waveform record of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the respiratory system
capnography
monitoring of the concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide in order to assess physiologic status or determine the adequacy of ventilation during anesthesia
capsule
an enclosing structure, as a soluble container enclosing a dose of medicine
2) a cartilaginous, fatty, fibrous, membranous structure enveloping another structure, organ, or part
cervical spine
that portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae
choana -ae
1)infundibulum
2)the paired openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx
chronic
persisting for a long time
circumferential
pertaining to a circumference; encircling; peripheral
condyle
a rounded projection on a bone usually for articulation with another bone
coronoid
1)shaped like a crow's beak
2)crown-shaped
cough
1)sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs
2)to produce such an expulsion
cricoid cartilage
a ringlike cartilage forming the lower and back part of the larynx
cuff (ETT)
a small, bandlike structure encircling a part or object
deciduous teeth
primary teeth; the twenty teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permenant teeth
defecation
1)the evacuation of fecal matter from the rectum
2)the removal of impurities, as chemical defecation
dens
1)tooth
2)a tooth-like stucture
3)dens axis; the toothlike process that projects from the superior surface of the body of the axis, ascending to articulate with the atlas
diabetes mellitus
any disorder characterized by excessive urine excretion.
disk
circular or rounded flat plate
endotracheal intubation
insertion of a tube into the trachea for purposes of anesthesia, airway maintenance, aspiration of secretions, lung ventilation, or prevention of entrance of foreign material into the airway; the tube goes through the nose (nasotracheal) or mouth (orotracheal)
epiglottis
the lidlike cartilaginous structure overhanging the entrance to the larynx, guarding it during swallowing
ethmoid sinus
paranasal sinuses found in groups within the ethmoid bone in communication with the ethmoidal infundibulum and bulla and the superior and highest meatuses; often subdivided into anterior, posterior, and middle
facet
a small plane surface on a hard body, as on a bone
fracture
1)the breaking of a part, especially a bone
2)a break or rupture in a bone
frenulum
a small fold of integument or mucous membrane that limits the movements of and organ or part
frontal sinus
one of the paired paranasal sinuses in the frontal bone, each communicating with middle meatus of the ipsilateral nasal cavitity
hematemesis
the vomiting of blood
hemoptysis
the spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum
ID -infective dose
that amount of pathogenic organisms that will cause infection in susceptibe subjects
infection
1)invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissue, especially that causing local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response
2)an infectious disease
inflammation
a protective tissue response to injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissues. The classical signs of acute inflammation and pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
intermediate
1)between; intervening; resembling in part, each of two extremes
2)a substance formed in a chemical process that is essential to formation of the end product of the process
intubation
the insertion of a tube into a body canal or hollow organ, as into the trachea
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the interior of the larynx
larynx
the organ of voice; the air passage between the lower pharynx and the trachea containing the vocal cords and formed by nine cartilages: the thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, and the paired arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages
lumbar spine
that portion of the spine comprising the lumbar vertebra
lumen
1)the cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ
2)the SI unit of luminous flux; it is the light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point source with luminous intensity of one candela
mandible
the lower jaw
nasal septum
the partition between the two nasal cavities
nasopharynx
the part of the pharynx above the soft palate
oropharynx
the part of the pharynx between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis
palatine tonsil(s)
a small mass of lymphoid tissuebetween the pillars of the fauces on either side of the pharynx
palatoglossal arch
the anterior of the two folds of mucous membrane of either side of the oropharynx, enclosing the palatoglossal muscle
palatopharyngeal arch
the posterior of the two folds of mucous membrane on either side of the oropharyns, enclosing the palatopharyngeal muscle
parturition
childbirth
patent
open, unobstructed, or not closed
*apparent, evident
permanent teeth
the 32 of the second dentition
pharyngitis
sore throat; inflammation of the pharynx
pheochromocytoma
a tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia; symptoms, notably, hypertension, reflect the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
phlegmon
diffuse infammation of the soft or connective tissue due to infection
radiodensity
radiopacity, the quality or property of obstructing the passage of radiant energy, such as x-rays, the representative areas appearing light or white on the exposed film
ramus
a branch, as of a nerve, vein, or artery
soft palate
the fleshy part of the palate, extending from the posterior edge of the hard palate; the uvula projects from its free inferior border
sphenoid sinus
one of the paired paranasal sinuses in the body of the sphenoid bone and opening into the highest meatus of the ipsalateral nasal cavity
stridor
a harsh, high-pitched breath sound
subluxation
1)incomplete or partial dislocation
2)in chiropractic, any mechanical impediment to nerve function; originally, a vertebral displacement believed to impair nerve function
thoracic spine
the part of the spine composing the thoracic vertebrae
thyroid cartilage
the shield-shaped cartilage of the larynx
tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils
trismus
motor disturbance of the trigeminal nerve, especially spasm of the masticatory muscles, with difficulty in opening the mouth (lockjaw); a characteristic early in tetanus
uvula
a pendant, fleshy mass
wheeze
a whistling type of continuos sound
xiphoid
1)ensiform, sword-shaped
2)xiphoid process
vocal cords
folds of mucous membrane in the larynx; the superior pair are called the false vocal cords and the inferior, the true vocal cords
hyoid bone
a U-shaped bone or complex of bones that is situated between the base of the tongue and the larynx and that supports the tongue, the larynx, and their muscles -- called also hyoid, lingual bone
nasal concha
any of three thin bony plates on the lateral wall of the nasal fossa on each side with or without their covering of mucous membrane
palliate
to reduce the violence of (a disease) : ease without curing
patency
the quality or state of being open or unobstructed
temporomandibular joint syndrome
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a diarthrosis joint that connects the mandible (lower jaw) to the temporal bone at the side of a skull. As a modified hinge joint, not only does the TMJ enable the jaw to open and close, it also enables the jaw to move forward and backward, as well as laterally.

This is a ginglymo-arthrodial joint; the parts entering into its formation on either side are: the anterior part of the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the articular tubercle above; and the condyle of the mandible below.
temporal fossa
a broad fossa on the side of the skull of higher vertebrates behind the orbit that contains muscles for raising the lower jaw and that in humans is occupied by the temporalis muscle, is separated from the orbit by the zygomatic bone, is bounded laterally by the zygomatic arch, and lies above the infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone
pulse oximetry
the oxygen saturation of the blood of an anesthetized patient
hypoproteinemia
abnormal deficiency of protein in the blood
hypoalbuminemia
hypoproteinemia marked by reduction in serum albumins
neurosurgeon
a surgeon specializing in surgical procedures involving the nervous system
physical examination
an examination of the bodily functions and condition of an individual
*to obtain objective information, facts that can be seen or detected by testing
alleviate
to make (as symptoms) less severe or more bearable
elective
beneficial to the patient but not essential for survival
history
an account of a patient's family and personal background and past and present health
heart rate
a measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as number of beats per minute
pulse rate
the rate of the arterial pulse usually observed at the wrist and stated in beats per minute
plastic surgeon
surgeon who specializes in procedures concerned with restoration, reconstruction, correction, or improvement in the shape and appearence of body structures that are defective, damaged, or misshapen by injury, disease, or growth and development
oral surgeon
one who specializes in the branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis and surgical and adjunct treatment of diseases and defects of the mouth and dental structures
general surgeon
a surgean who deals with surgical problems of all kinds, rather than those in a restricted area
morbid obesity
the condition of weighing two or more times the ideal weight; so called because it is associated with many serious and life threatening disorders
orthopedic surgeon
one who specializes in the branch of surgery dealing with the preservation and restoration of the function of the skeletal system, it's articulations, and associated structures
turbinate
of, relating to, or being a nasal concha
*any of the nasal conchae
sx
abbrev. for symptom
OD
right eye or doctor of optometry
ABG
arterial blood gas
FROM
Full range of motion (eg cervical spine)
C1
cervical vertebra one; atlas
C2
cervical vertebra two; axis
PACU
post anesthesia care unit
RR
recovery room
cerebral edema
oedema is an excess accumulation of water in the intra- and/or extracellular spaces of the brain. Edema can occur as the result of many things, including head injury, allergic reaction, stroke, acute liver disease, cardiac arrest or from the lack of proper altitude acclimatization.The brain is especially susceptible to injury from edema, because it is located within a confined space and cannot expand.
circumoral cyanosis
a blueish discoloration around or encircling the mouth due to excessive concentration of deoxyhemoglobin in the blood
force
any influence that acts to change the motion of an object, either accelerating or decelerating it, including changes in direction of motion (F)
Functional residual capacity (FCR)
) is the amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration. FRC is the sume of RV and ERV. (RV + ERV = FRC)
Total lung capacity
) is the amount of air in the lungs at the end of an extended or complete inspiration. TLC is the sum of all four lung volumes discussed above. (RV + IRV + TV + ERV = TLC)
T (vital sign)
Temperature
breathing circuit
The function of any breathing circuit is to deliver oxygen and anesthetic gases, and eliminate carbon dioxide.They are designed to allow either spontaneous respiration or intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and consist of a reservoir bag, anaesthetic tubing, and a pressure relief valve. A breathing circuit must enable a patient to breathe satisfactorily without significantly increasing the work of breathing or the physiological deadspace. It must also conduct inhalational anaesthetic agents to the patient.
Neuromuscular blockade (NMB)
a failure in neuromuscular transmission that can be induced pharmacologically or may result from pathological disturbance at the myoneural junction
renal failure
the inability of a kidney to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels under conditions of normal loading or the inability to retain electrolytes under conditions of normal intake. In the acute form, it is marked by uremia and usually by oliguria or anuria, with hyperkalemia and pulmonary edema. Chronic forms result from a wide variety of conditions and may require hemodialysis or transplantation.
renal insuffiency
a state of disordered functionof the kidneys verifiable by quantitative tests
sevoflurane
an inhalation anesthetic used for the induction and maintenence of general anesthesia
pressure
force per unit area; symbol P. The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa); which is one newton per square meter area
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ASTM
American Society for testing and materials
Bag-and-mask Ventilations
(BVM) a hand-held device with a face mask and self-refilling bag that can be squeezed to provide artificial ventilations to a patient. Can deliver air from the atmosphere or oxygen from a supplemental oxygen supply system
ETT
endotracheal tube
FFOB
flexible fibre optics bundle
French (Size/scale)
a scale used for denoting the size of catheters, sounds, and other tubular instuments; one French unit (symbol F) is .33 mm in diameter, so that an 18 French 18F needle has a diameter of 6mm
gauge (size)
a plate with graduated perforations for measuring the outside diameters of a catheters
interarytenoid incisure
incisura interarytenoidea, interarytenoid notch: the posterior portion of the aditus laryngis between the two arytenoid cartilages
LMA
Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) – The LMA is a cuff device that provides sufficient seal to allow for positive pressure ventilation to be delivered. It is particularly useful in maintaining an airway in anesthetized patients when endotracheal intubation is not desired or during emergency situations in which mask ventilation is not possible or intubation and/or ventilation fails.
An LMA is a wide bore tube, with a connector at its proximal end (that can be connected to a breathing circuit)and with an elliptical cuff at its distal end. When inflated, the elliptical cuff forms a low pressure seal around the entrance into the larynx. The LMA comes in a variety of pediatric and adult sizes and successful insertion requires appropriate size selection.
major carina
carina of the trachea: a projection of the lowest tracheal cartilage, forming a prominent semilunar ridge running anteroposteriorly between the orifices of the two bronchi
right mainstream bronchi
one of the larger air passages of the lungs, having an outer fibrous coat with irregularly placed plates of hyaline cartilage, on interlacing network of smooth muscle, and a mucous membrance of columnar ciliated epithelial cells.
*one of the two main bronchi in which the trachea divides into, passing into the respective right lung
septal deviation
a crookedness of the wall between the nasal cavities that can block airflow
NAW
nasal airway
nasopharyngeal airway
NETT
nasal endotracheal tube /intubation
OAW
oral airway
oropharyngeal airway
OETT
oral endotracheal tube /intubation
Murphy eye
An endotracheal (ET) tube is passed into the trachea to provide a patent airway in those whose airway is, or may become, compromised. Intubation is often accompanied by externally controlled breathing via a bag-valve-mask (ambu bag) or ventilator. The tubes are available in a variety of lengths and sizes (diameter). All tubes have a standard 15-mm adapter affixed to the proximal end for attachment to the ventilating device. The distal end has an opening in the side wall called a Murphy eye. This opening reduces the likelihood of complete airway obstruction if the end opening of the ET tube becomes obstructed.
The Murphy eye, incorporated into many modern tubes, permits airflow to take place even if this has occurred.
Acid-base disorder
Respiratory acid-base disorders are disorders of carbon dioxide tension (PCO2)

• Summary of Acid-Base Disorders:
o Acid-base state is determined by changes in PaCO2, Strong Ion Difference (SID), and Proteintotal.
o All acid-base disturbances are caused by changes in PaCO2, SID, and Proteintotal.
o Since protein concentration is not manipulated clinically, all acid-base disturbances are corrected by changes in PaCO2 and SID.
pharyngeal wall
the tissue making up the back of the throat
fulcrum
An anatomical structure that acts as a hinge or point of support
J-wire
flexible angiographic wire catheter guide ,to facilitate central vascular access.a thin, usually flexible wire that can be inserted into a confined or tortuous space to act as a guide for subsequent insertion of a stiffer or bulkier instrument, such as a catheter.
straight wire
a thin, usually flexible wire that can be inserted into a confined or tortuous space to act as a guide for subsequent insertion of a stiffer or bulkier instrument, such as a catheter.
lay
to bring forth and deposit
*to put or set down
*to place for rest or sleep
lie
to assume a horizontal position
*to be or to stay at rest in a horizontal position : be prostrate
Macintosh blade
Endotracheal intubation is required to provide a patent airway when patients are at risk of aspiration, when airway maintenance by mask is difficult, and for prolonged controlled ventilations. Intublation is usually performed with a laryngoscope. The Macintosh blade is curved, and the tip is inserted into the vallecula (the space between the base of the tongue and the pharyngeal sufface of the epiglottis).
Miller blade
Endotracheal intubation is required to provide a patent airway when patients are at risk of aspiration, when airway maintenance by mask is difficult, and for prolonged controlled ventilations. Intublation is usually performed with a laryngoscope. The Miller blade is straight, and it is passed so that the tip lies beneath the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. The epiglottis then is lifted to expose the vocal cords.
SpO2
blood oxygen saturation
practice guideline
A set of strategies, techniques, and treatment approaches that support or lead to a specific standard(s) of care that guides mental health systems, clinical care, and professions in their relationships to consumers
*The term practice guideline refers to a set of patient care strategies developed to assist in clinical decision making
*a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria in specific areas of healthcare, as defined by an authoritative examination of current evidence (evidence-based medicine). Guidelines usually include summarized consensus statements, but unlike the latter, they also address practical issues.

Clinical guidelines briefly identify, summarize and evaluate the best evidence and most current data about prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, risk/benefit and cost/effectiveness. Then they define the most important questions related to clinical practice and identify all possible decision options and their outcomes. Thus, they integrate the identified decision points and respective courses of action to the clinical judgment and experience of practitioners. Many guidelines place the treatment alternatives into classes to help providers in deciding which treatment to use.