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30 Cards in this Set

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Generic name:Lidocaine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
G.N.: Lidocaine
B.N.: Xylocaine
CLASS: Local Anesthetic (amide), class 1b antiarrhythmic
HOW SUPPLIED: IV, IM, or subcutaneously (liquid)
BAD: []=20mg/ml dose=1mg/kg
CSE: (related to overdose) lightheadedness, tinnitus, metalic taste, blurred vision, numbness, twitching, convulsions, hypotension
MA: 1)decreases conductance of sodium channels in rapidly firing cells (myocardium, pain fibers, CNS) 2)antiarrhythmic effect 3)sedation 4)neural blockade
CONTRA:avoid in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, with a history of hypersensitivity to amide anesthetics
Generic name:Meperidine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Meperidine
Brand name:Demerol
Class:synthetic opioid agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors
How supplied:liquid, IV-either by bolus or infusion
Basic adult dose:[]=50mg/ml
dose=5-10mg
Common side effects:drowsiness, nausea, bradycardia, dec. blood pressure
Unusual contraindications:Administration to patients on MAOI's can cause delirium, hyperthermia, and may be fatal
Major attributes:
Generic name:Midazolam
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Midazolam
Brand name:Versed
Class:benzodiazepine seditive, adjunct to gen. anesthesia
How supplied:liquid, IM or IV
Basic adult dose:[]=1mg/ml
dose=.01-.1 mg/kg
Common side effects:fluctuations in VS, including dec. resp. rate and tidal volume, apnea
Produce amnestic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, muscle relaxant, and seditive effects. Not produce significant analgesia. Reduce cerebral blood flow/metabolic rate. Produce mild systemic vasodilation, and reduction in CO. HR usually unchanged.
Unusual contraindications: Hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines. Acute narrow angle glaucoma. Use in obstetrics, coma, shock, or acute alcohol intoxication where VS are depressed. IA injection.
Major attributes:
Generic name:Morphine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
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Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Morphine
Brand name: Duramorph
Class:opioid agonist
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:concentration=.5-50 mg/ml dose=2-10 mg
Common side effects:Morphine can cause nausea, vomiting, abd cramps, blurred vision,
constricted pupils, altered mental status, headache, and respiratory depression.
Unusual contraindications:Acute pancreatitis (this may be a result of morphine use as well)
Renal failure (due to accumulation of the metabolite morphine-6-glucuronide)
Morphine should not be used in patients who are volume
depleted or severely hypotensive because of the hemodynamic effects effects described earlier.
Morphine should not be administered to any patient with a history of hypersensitivity to the
drug, or to patients with undiagnosed head injury or abdominal pain.
Major attributes:Morphine is a central nervous system depressant and a potent analgesic.
Although morphine is one of the most potent analgesics known to humans, it also has hemodynamic
properties that make it extremely useful in emergency medicine.
Generic name:Naloxone
Brand name:
Class:
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Common side effects:
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Major attributes:
Generic name:Naloxone
Brand name:Narcan
Class:Synthetic opioid antagonist
How supplied: Liquid, IV
Basic adult dose: 40-100 mcg
Common side effects: May cause hypertension, arrhythmias, rare pulmonary edema, delirium, reversal of analgesia, or withdrawl syndrome in opioid dependant patients
Unusual contraindications: Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug
Major attributes: Antagonizes the effects of opioids by competitive inhibition. Renarcotization may occur because antagonist has short duration.
Generic name:Neostigmine
Brand name:
Class:
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Major attributes:
Generic name:Neostigmine
Brand name:Prostigmin
Class:Anticholinesterase (quaternary amine)
How supplied:IV, IM, OR SC
Basic adult dose: []=1mg/ml
dose=.5-2.5 mg
Common side effects: Salivation, bradycardia, tearing, miosis, and bronchioconstriction.
Unusual contraindications:Neostigmine is contraindicated in patients with peritoni­tis, mechanical intestinal or urinary tract obstructions, late stages of pregnancy, in animals hypersensitive to this class of compounds or treated with other cholinesterase inhibitors.



Use neostigmine with caution in patients with epilepsy, peptic ulcer disease, bronchial asthma, cardiac arrhythmias, hyperthyroidism, vagotonia or megacolon
Major attributes: Usually administered after an antimuscarinic drug (atropine/glycopyrrolate) to minimize the above listed side effects.
Generic name:Nitroglycerin
Brand name:
Class:
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Generic name:Nitroglycerin
Brand name:Glycerol Trinitrate, Nitrostat, Nitrol, Nitro-Bid, Nitrolinqual
Class: Organic Nitrate
How supplied: Most frequently sublingual, but is also available as an oral tablet, a buccal or transmucosal tablet, a lingual spray, IV, and a transdermal ointment or patch.
Basic adult dose: []=100mcg/ml dose=1-3mcg/kg/min
Common side effects: Produces smooth muscle relaxation by enzymatic release of NO, causing systemic, coronary, and pulmonary vasodilation (veins more than arteries); bronchiodilation; biliary GI and genitourinary tract relaxation. May cause reflex tachycardia, tension, or headache.
Unusual contraindications:Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pronounced hypovolemia, inferior myocardial infarction with right ventricular involvement, raised intracranial pressure, cardiac tamponade. Use of Viagra® within past 24 hours
Major attributes: May be absorbed by plastic in IV tubing. May cause methemoglobinemia at very high doses.
Generic name:Ondansetron
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
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Major attributes:
Generic name:Ondansetron
Brand name:Zofran
Class:antiemetic, nausea
How supplied:PO, IV, IM
Basic adult dose:4 mg IV over >30 s or 8 mg PO
Common side effects:headache and reversable transaminase elevation, diarrhea, clonic-tonic seizures, anaphylaxis, shock, bronchospasm.
Unusual contraindications: Use with caution during lactation.
Major attributes: Relative freedom from side effects compared to past antiemetic drugs. Cost is much greater than other antiemetics.
Generic name:Pancuronium
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
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Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Pancuronium
Brand name: Pavulon
Class: Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker
How supplied: Liquid, IV
Basic adult dose: .05-.1 mg/kg
Common side effects: Typically produces a moderate inc. in HR, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output.
Unusual contraindications:Known hypersensitivity to the drug

Inability to control airway and/or support ventilations with oxygen and positive pressure

Neuromuscular diseases (e.g. myasthenia gravis)
Major attributes: Used to counteract the bradycardic effect of opioids. Most commonly administered long acting nondepolarizing neuromuscular drug. Low cost.
Generic name:Phenylephrine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
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Major attributes:
Generic name:Phenylephrine
Brand name:Neo-synephrine
Class: Synthetic Noncatecholamine that stimulates principally alpha-1 adenergic receptors by a direct effect, with only a small part of the pharmacological response being due to its ability to evoke the release of norepinephrine (indirect acting).
How supplied: Liquid, IV, bolus, or infusion, topically
Basic adult dose: []=100mcg/ml dose=50-100mcg
Common side effects:May cause hypertension, reflex bradycardia, microcirculatory constriction, uterine contraction, or uterine vasoconstriction
Unusual contraindications:Hypersensitivity to chlorpheniramine, methscopolamine, phenylephrine, or any component of the formulation; patients with severe hypertension, severe coronary artery disease, narrow-angle glaucoma, urinary retention, peptic ulcer, hyperthyroidism; patients on MAO inhibitors or beta-blockers; not for use during asthma exacerbation
Major attributes: Clinically phenylephrine mimics the effects of norepinephrine but is less potent and longer acting. CNS stimulation is minimal.
Generic name:Propofol
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
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Major attributes:
Generic name:Propofol
Brand name: Diprivan
Class: IV sedative-hypnotic agent
How supplied: 1% isotonic oil and water emulsion,which contains egg lecithin, glycerol, and soybean oil.
Basic adult dose: []=10mg/ml
dose=2-2.5mg/kg
Common side effects: Induction doses produce unconsciousness whereas low doses produce conscious sedation. Cardiovascular depressant. Dose-dependant decrease in resp. rate and tidal volume. Also dose-dependant decrease in arterial BP and cardiac output.
Unusual contraindications: Allergies to eggs or soybeans. Should not be used with children in ICU. Use cautiously in patients with disorders in lipid metabolism.
Major attributes: Causes pain during IV administration in 50-75% of patients, therefore, often administered in conjunction with lidocaine.
Generic name:Rocuronium
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Rocuronium
Brand name:Zemuron
Class:Nondepolarizing NMB
How supplied: Liquid IV
Basic adult dose: []=10mg/ml
dose=.6-1.2mg/kg
Common side effects: May produce a slight vagolitic effect.
Unusual contraindications:Injection is contraindicated in patients known to have hypersensitivity to rocuronium bromide.
Major attributes: Least potent NMB, has the fastest onset and shortest duration of action.
Generic name:Succinylcholine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Succinylcholine
Brand name:Anectine
Class:Depolarizing NMB
How supplied:liquid given IM or IV
Basic adult dose:[]=20mg/ml
dose=1mg/kg
Common side effects:severe persistent respiratory depression or apnea, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis, malignant hypothermia
Unusual contraindications:genetic disorders of plasma pseudocholinesterase, family history of malignant hypothermia, myopathies with elevated CPK levels, acute narrow-angle glaucoma or penetrating eye injuries. Caution should be used when giving to children IV due to risk of malignant hyperpyrexia.
Major attributes: Succinylcholine is the only dep. NMBD in clinical use in the U.S.
Generic name:Thiopental
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Thiopental
Brand name:Pentothal
Class:Ultra-short acting barbiturate anesthetic
How supplied: Usually prepared as dilute solutions for IV administration
Basic adult dose:[]=25mg/ml
3-5 mg/kg IV
Common side effects: (Overdose related) severe hypotension, dec. arterial BP and cardiac output in dose-dependant manner, may inc. HR via baroreceptor reflexes. Produce dose-dependant decrease in resp. rate and tidal volume.
Unusual contraindications:Do not administer to patients with a history of allergy to any barbiturate. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions may occur rarely.
Absolutely contraindicated in patients with acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, and hereditary coproporphyria.
Major attributes: May cause pain at site of administration b/c of venous irritation. Infiltration or intraarterial administration may cause severe pain, tissue damage, and necrosis due to its high alkalinity.
Generic name:Vecuronium
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name:Vecuronium
Brand name: Noccuron
Class: Monoquaternary aminosteroid nondepolarizing nueromuscular blocker
How supplied: Vec is unstable in solution, and for this reason, is supplied as a lyophilized powder that must be dissolved in sterile water before it is used.
Basic adult dose: []=1mg/ml
dose=.1mg/kg
Common side effects: Hypotension,Paralytic Ileus,Bronchospasm, Tachycardia
Unusual contraindications:Use in neonates, obesity. Sensitivity to bromides
Major attributes:
Generic name: Atropine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Atropine
Brand name: Atropine
Class: Anticholinergic
How supplied: 0.4mg/mL
Basic adult dose: 0.2-1mg
Common side effects: tachycardia, mild postoperative memory deficits, dry mouth
Unusual contraindications: patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or bladder-neck obstruction.
Major attributes: the most efficacious anticholinergic for treating bradyarrhythmias
Generic name: Cisatracurium
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Cisatracurium
Brand name: Nimbex
Class: Muscle Relaxant
How supplied: 2mg/mL
Basic adult dose: 0.01-0.2mg/kg
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes: It has an onset of action of 3-5 minutes and a duration of neuromuscular blockade lasting 20-30 minutes.
Generic name: Diazepam
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Diazepam
Brand name: Valium
Class: Benzodiazepine
How supplied: 5mg/mL
Basic adult dose: 0.05-0.2mg/kg
Common side effects: Arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral vascular resistance usually decline slightly, whereas heart rate sometimes increases, respiratory depression.
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes: often produce antegrade amnesia
Generic name: Diphenhydramine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Diphenhydramine
Brand name: Benadryl
Class: Hisamine-Receptor Antagonist
How supplied: 50mg/mL
Basic adult dose: 25-50mg
Common side effects: somnolence, diminished alertness, slowed reaction time, impaired cognitive function, dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, tachycardia.
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes: multitude of therapeutic uses – suppression of allergic systems, vertigo, and vomiting; sedation; suppression of cough
Generic name: Droperidol
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Droperidol
Brand name: Inapsine
Class: Antipsychotic
How supplied: 2.5mg/mL – liquid, IV, IM
Basic adult dose: 0.625-2.5mg
Common side effects: respiratory depression, apnea, and muscle rigidity
Unusual contraindications: patients with hypersensitivity to the drug
Major attributes: The duration of the tranquilizing and sedative effect generally is two to four hours
Generic name: Ephedrine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Ephedrine
Brand name: Ephedrine
Class: Vasoactive
How supplied: 50mg/mL – liquid, IV, IM
Basic adult dose: 0.1mg/kg
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Epinephrine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Epinephrine
Brand name: Adrenaline
Class: Vasoactive
How supplied: 1mg/mL – liquid, IV, IM, Intraspinal
Basic adult dose: 0.1-1mg
Common side effects: minor side effects of anxiety, headache, fear, and palpitations
Unusual contraindications: in labor, and with patients with organic brain damage
Major attributes: acts on both alpha and beta receptors and is the most potent alpha receptor
Generic name: Esmolol
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Esmolol
Brand name: Brevibloc
Class: Beta Blocker
How supplied: 10mg/mL – liquid IV
Basic adult dose: 0.25-0.5mg/kg
Common side effects: hypotension
Unusual contraindications: Patients with sinus bradycardia, heart block grater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, or overt heart failure
Major attributes: Ultra-short acting
Generic name: Etomidate
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Etomidate
Brand name: Amidate
Class: Induction Agent
How supplied: 2mg/mL – liquid IV
Basic adult dose: 0.2-0.6mg/kg
Common side effects: transient venous pain on injection and transient skeletal muscle movements
Unusual contraindications: patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug
Major attributes: hypnosis is usually three to five minutes with an average dose
Generic name: Fentanyl
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Fentanyl
Brand name: Sublimaze
Class: Opioid
How supplied: 50mcg/mL – liquid IV
Basic adult dose: 2-150mcg/kg
Common side effects: Hypoventilation
Unusual contraindications: patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug
Major attributes: therapeutic values are analgesia and sedation
Generic name: Glycopyrrolate
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Glycopyrrolate
Brand name: Robinul
Class: Anticholinergic
How supplied: 0.2mg/mL – liquid, IV, IM
Basic adult dose: 0.2mg
Common side effects: decreased sweating, urinary retention, blurred vision, tachycardia, papitations, loss of taste, headaches, nausea, constipation, weakness
Unusual contraindications: newborns, and patients with glaucoma, obstructive uropathy, obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract
Major attributes: Has a longer duration of action than atropine
Generic name: Heparin
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Heparin
Brand name:
Class: Anticoagulant
How supplied: liquid – IV (it is added to an infusion solution for continuous IV administration)
Basic adult dose: 350-400 U/kg
Common side effects: hemorrhage
Unusual contraindications: Severe thrombocytopenia
Major attributes: contains benzyl alcohol as preservative
Generic name: Ketamine
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Ketamine
Brand name: Ketalar
Class: Induction Agent
How supplied: 50mg/mL – liquid IV, IM
Basic adult dose: 1-2mg/kg
Common side effects: hypertension, tachycardia, undesirable psychotomimetic side effects (illusions, disturbing dreams, and delirium)
Unusual contraindications: patients whom a significant elevation in blood pressure would constitute a serious hazard
Major attributes: Of the nonvolatile agents, ketamine may be the closest to being a “complete” anesthetic as it induces analgesia, amnesia, and unconsciousness
Generic name: Ketorolac
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
Common side effects:
Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Ketorolac
Brand name: Toradol
Class: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
How supplied: 30mg/mL – liquid IV, IM
Basic adult dose: 30-60mg
Common side effects: nausea, dyspepsia, GI pain, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, inhibits platelet aggregation
Unusual contraindications: Patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, renal impairment; in labor and delivery; and in nursing mothers
Major attributes: popular alternative to opiods for postoperative analgesia
Generic name: Labetalol
Brand name:
Class:
How supplied:
Basic adult dose:
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Unusual contraindications:
Major attributes:
Generic name: Labetalol
Brand name: Normaodyne
Class: Adrenergic Antagonist
How supplied: 5mg/mL – liquid IV (multidose containers and single-dose prefilled syringes)
Basic adult dose: 0.1-0.25mg/kg
Common side effects: Nausea, hypertension, bronchospasm
Unusual contraindications: Patients with bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater than first degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, and severe bradycardia
Major attributes: lowers blood pressure without reflex tachycardia