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25 Cards in this Set

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_______ include scleroderma or achalasia with chronic heartburn, regurgitation, respiratory problems, or weight loss
progressive motility dysphagia
_______ occurs when there is a problem with any part of the swallowing process
Dysphagia
T/F Any condition that weakens or damages the muscles and nerves used for swallowing doesn't cause dysphagia
True/False
T/F Dysphagia only occur in adults
True/False
People with swallowing disorders may suffer from __________or dehydration and may be at risk for developing pneumonia
weoght loss
Swallowing is a complex neuromuscular activity involving rapid coordination of structures in the a)oral cavity, b)phayrnx c) larynx d)esophagus e)all of the above
e)all of the above
In normal adults, respiration ceases during the process of
___________.
deglutition
The first two stages are under ____________ control, whereas the second two stages are ___________ being under ________ control.
voluntary, involuntary, reflexive
Fibers descend through the internal capsule to the ______________ and then to the mesencephalic reticular formation.
substantia nigra
The brainstem "swallowing center" is thought to be in the ________ between the posterior pole of the facial nucleus and the rostral pole
of the inferior olive.
medulla
T/F Purpose of oral preparation is to reduce solid food mechanically and mix with saliva to produce a pulverized consistency appropriate for swallowing
True
Lateral rolling motion of the tongue to position food on
the teeth during mastication is known as___________
a neuromuscular action
The most important neuromuscular action of the oral preparation stage is the ___________ since it is so extensively involved in the manipulation
and mastication of food, as well as the formation of the food into a cohesive ball at the end of this stage.
tongue motion
T/FPurpose og the oral phase is to move food from the front of the oral cavity to the anterior faucial arches, where the reflexive swallow is initiated
True
Tongue makes _________contact anteriorly with alveolar
ridge
vertical
Larynx closes at three different levels during
swallowing to prevent __________.
aspiration.
Upper esophageal sphincter(UES) made up of cricopharyngeus attached to the ________.
cricoid cartilage.
a. relaxation of UES to ENABLE opening
b. upward, forward movement of larynx which is believed
to be most important in opening the cricopharyngeal
sphincter.
c. bolus pressure increases the width of UES opening
are factors that contribute to the UES
How long does the pharyngeal phase last?
C)Lasts less than one second
T/F The purpose of the pharyngeal stage is to transport the food bolus from the UES to the stomach
False
Esophageal stage lasts how long?
8-20
Airway closure duration and cricopharyngeal opening duration increases with increasing _______ and viscosity
bolus volume
Name 1 age affects on swallowing for infants
Suckle feeding: multiple tongue-pumping of small amounts of liquid from nipple which collects in posterior oral cavity and valleculae before pharyngeal swallow occurs.
Name 2 age affects on swalling for adults
1.. Slight increase in time required to trigger reflexive
swallow (0.4 sec)
2. Oral transit time and cricopharyngeal opening time
slightly prolonged
Disorders of mastication include
1. reduced range of tongue motion
2. reduced buccal tension/buccal scarring
3. poor maxillary/mandibular alignment
4. poor dentition/mandibular defects
5. disorders involved in muscles of mastication