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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a disease causing agent such as a virus, bacteria, fungi, or protist?
What does the 1st line of nonspecific defenses not target?
a specific pathogen
What are four areas of defense in the bodies first line of defense?
1. skin
2. mucus membranes
3. cilia
4. hair in nostrils, ears, eyelashes
What does the lysozyme enzyme in tears do to aide in the first line of defense?
digests bacteria cell wall whcih breaks down bacteria
What is the function of skin oil, sweat, acidic, lysozyme enzyme in the first line of nonspecific defense?
digests bacteria cell wall
What are sticky viscous fluid that lines the membrane of the disgestive system, nasal passages, lungs, trachea, and bronchi, and reproductive tract?
mucus membranes
What are tiny hair-like structures lining the respiratory tract?
How do cilia help in the bodies defense against pathogens?
Cilia sweep mucus toward the esophogus where it can be swallowed.
What are 5 defenses in the bodies 2nd line of nonspecific defenses?
1.Inflamatory response
2.Injured cells release
3.Temperature Response
4. Proteins
5.White Blood Cells
What do injured cells release?
How do injured cells fight pathogens?
Injured cells release Histamine which causes blood vessels to dilate and increases blood flow
-this brings more white blood cells and causes selling and redness
-may create pus, containing dead pathogens/white blood cells
What is a white liquid at the area of injury containing dead pathogens & white blood cells?
How does Temperature Response help in the 2nd line of nonspecific defenses?
fever creates an environment in whcih bacteria don not grow as favorably
What is a normal fever temperature?
37 C and 99 F
What is a dangerous temperature?
103 F
What is a lethal temperature?
105 F
About how many different proteins circulate in the blood?
How do proteins in the blood fight pathogens?
they attach to a pathogen
What is a type of protein which is highly effective at killing viruses?
How do some proteins create a "Mac Attack" when attacking pathogens?
Creates a membrane attack complex which punch holes in the cells of pathogens.
What is the most abundant type of white blood cells?
What kind of White blood cells are the best defense against cancer cells and cells infected with viruses?
Natural killer cells
What are large White blood cells (wbc) that attack cells infected with pathogens?
natural killer cells
What type of white blood cells ingest and kill pathogens and clear dead cells from body?
type of white blood cell that travel in blood?
What is a wbc that engulfs and destroys pathogens?
What is the 3rd line of defense?
Specific Response
What are types of Specific Responses?
Antigen Response

White Blood cells produced in the bone marrow
What is a pathogen which has proteins on the surface of the cell?
What are the proteins in wbc that "recognize" antigens on the surface of the cell?
receptor proteins
Where are White blood cells produced?
in bone marrow
Where do white blood cells circulate?
in the blood and lymphatic fluid
About how many wbc circulate at any one time?
about 2 trillion
Why do doctors often test your wbc?
WBC Count can determine if you have an infection
What are five kinds of wbc?
1. macrophage
2. cytoxic T Cell
3. B cells
4. helper T Cells
5. plasma cells
What is the first reaction when a virus or bacteria enters the body?
macrophages engulf or surround and show the antigen on their surface
Inflammatory response is what line of defense?
2nd line of defense
Temperature response is what line of defense?
2nd line of defense
Interferons would be found in what line of defense?
2nd line of defense
Some 20 different proteins create a "Mac Attack which is what line of defense?
2nd line of defense
Injured Cells release Histamine and white blood cells causing redness and pus may be created, would be what line of defense?
2nd line of defense
Mucus membranes in the nasal passages, skin, and cilia sweeping mucus toward the esophagus is in what line of defense?
1st line of defense
Neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer cells would be found in what line of defense?
2nd line of defense
An antigen response would be found in what line of defense?
3rd line of defense
In the 2nd line of defense injured cells release Histamine which results in what?
increase blood flow
What do B cells do?
They label invaders for later destruction.
What do Helper T cells do?
They activate B Cells.
What do macrophages do?
They consume infected cells and pathogens.
What do Natural Killers cells do?
They are the best line of defense against cancer cells.
What do Cytotoxic T cells do?
They kill infected cells
What is the purpose of antibodies?
To mark a pathogen for destruction
What are 3 ways to prevent you from from being exposed to pathogens?
1. Cooking Food (killing bacteria such as E. Coli)
2. Cleaning utensils and preparation area.
3. Washing hands
What happens to some B & T cells after a primary immune response?
They become "memory cells" and continue to patrol the body.
What is a communicable disease?
Spread by air or on a surface
spread by
kissing shaking hands, sexual contact
a contagious disease
What would an IMMUNOLOGIST study?
How diseases are spread in a community
What provides permanent immunity against a disease?
A vaccine
There is a useful vaccine for all of the following except one. Which one does not have a vaccine that can prevent the disease? Chicken Pox, measles, HIV, Polio
What must happen in order for HIV to enter a cell?
It must attach to two protein receptor sites.
What type of antibodies do you produce if you have blood type A?
B antibodies
What is the blood type that can be given to anyone?
Type O
Who produced the first successful vaccine for polio in the late 1950's?
How are Rabies spread?
blood and bites
How is E-Coli spread?
How is West Nile Virus Spread?
How many strains of HIV are there?
How many subtypes of HIV are there
What does it mean when a drug or vaccine says it has a "overall efficacy of ____%"?
it means that it is able to ro protect from infection that _given % of the time
Once infected by disease some people are never infected again. Why does this occur?
After a person is infected, the body makes antibodies. These antibodies will prevent further disease.