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44 Cards in this Set

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_____ is the process by which plants make food.
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis takes place mainly in the ____ surface of the leaf.
upper
_____ is the layer of cells protecting the upper layer of the leaf.
epidermis
The upper epidermis has two functions: 1 2
1)protect the leaf's like a skin
2)reduces water loss
A waxy covering on the epidermis is called the _____.
cuticle
The _____ layer is directly below the upper epidermis and has the most chloroplast where the photosynthesis takes place.
palisade layer
The loosely packed layer with many air spaces is called the ___ ___.
spongy layer
The bottom layer of the leaf is the ___ ___.
lower epidermis
___ ____ which forms the edges of the stomata, change shape depending on the amount of water in them.
guard cells
Chlorophyll can change light energy into ______ energy.
chemical energy
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
___& __ + __& ____ > ___&_____
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
carbon dioxide and water
+
sunlight and chlorophyll
> glucose and oxygen
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
______ & ____ -> _____ &___ + __
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
glucose & oxygen -> carbon dioxide and water + energy
Plants use ___% of the food they make.
90%
A ____ is anything that causes an organism to respond.
stimulus
______ is a plant's response to stimulus.
tropism
A plant's response to light is called _____________.
phototropism
Plant's response to gravity is called _____.
gravitropism
Why is gravitropism an adaptation for plants.
Gravitropism makes sure that a plant's roots grow down into the soil and take in water and minerals.
A _____ ____ plant does not require much sunlight and usually bloom in early spring or fall.
short-day
___________ is an example of a short-day plant.
Poinsettia
A ___ ____ plant requires long hours of sunlight in order to bloom and do better in the summer.
long-day plant
____ is an example of a long-day plant.
larkspur
_____ is the joining of the reproductive cells to produce a seed.
fertilization
The male parts of the flower are called the ______, which produces the pollen.
stamen
The female part of the flower is called the ____, contains the egg.
pistil
Before a flower blooms, it is called a _____.
bud
The ____ (which is at the top of the stamen) actually produces the pollen.
anther
The transfer of the pollen from an anther to the stigma is called _____.
pollination
The pollen is placed on the ____, then travels down the ____ to the _______.
stigma
style
ovary
Name two methods of pollination:
1
2
1)self pollination
2)cross pollination
Why is cross pollination a benefit for plants?
Cross pollination allows genetic traits to spread through a population of plants over time.
An ____ is a plant that is inside a seed.
embryo
A seed's food is stored in structures called ___.
cotyledons
A seed with one cotyledon is called a _____.
monocot
A seed with two cotyledons are called a ______.
dicots
Name three ways seeds are dispersed (carried away):
1 2 3
1)by the wind,
2)by the fur of animals, and
3)by animal droppings
What are the ideal conditions for a seed to sprout (germinate)?
1)fertile soil,
2)warm temperatures and
3)moisture
_________ is the sprouting of a seed.
germinate
The steps to germination:
1
2
3
1)the seeds take in water,
2)the root will emerge,
3)the stem will grow upward
When the seed sprouts, it is called a __________.
seedling
The plant will continue to use food from the cotyledon until the first _______ is able to make food.
leaf
Reproduction without seeds is called _____ ______.
vegetative propagation
_____ is a form of artificial reproduction used on woody plants.
grafting
Why do scientist use artificial reproduction with plants?
To produce plants that are useful to humans.