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36 Cards in this Set

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The first microscope was invented in the early _______ by _____ ______.
1600s

Robert Hooke
Why did Hooke call the first microscope slide (of a piece of cork) a cell?
Because the tiny walled spaces of the dead cork looked like tiny rooms.
The ____________ is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
cell
Why were cells not observed before the 1600s?
Because scientists had no tool that would allow them to look at objects that were too small for the normal eye to see.
Name a simple organism that is made up of only one cell.
bacteria
Each cell in a multicellular organism has a special _______; or job.
function
The ____ and _____ of a cell depend on its function.
size and shape
Why are blood cells small and disc-shaped?
So they can easily fit through the small blood vessels.
Name three types of cells.
blood, muscle and nerve cells
Name the processes of a the cells in a organism.
1) release energy from food,
2) getting rid of waste, and
3) making news cells
The ___ _____ holds the parts of the cell together and protects the cell from the outside environment.
cell membrane
The ______ is the "brain" of the cell, controlling the cell's activities.
nucleus
______ is a jellylike substance containing chemicals to keep the cell working.
cytoplasm
_________ is considered the "powerhouse" of the cell; releasing energy from food.
mitochrondia
_______ are storage areas.
vacuoles
Name two organelles in a plant cell that are not in an animal cell.
A cell wall and chloroplast
The ___ ____ of a plant cell is a rigid layer that supports and protects the cell.
cell wall
______ are located inside the nucleus and contain information about the characteristics of an organism.
chromosomes
Particles moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is ______.
diffusion
What is the purpose of diffusion?
To move materials in and out of the cell.
What organelle of the cell is used with diffusion?
cell membrane
Diffusion DOES NOT require energy from the cell, this is called ___ ___.
passive transport
The movement of water and other material through the cell membrane is called ___.
osmosis
Why is osmosis important to plants?
Osmosis allows water to move from the soil into the plant to keep the plant from wilting and dying.
When material is too large to come through the cell through diffusion, it will bring it through another method called _______.
active transport
How does active transport work?
The cell creates a channel in the cell membrane to bring large particles in.
Active transport requires ________ from the cell.
ENERGY
The cell uses about _____ of its total energy in active transport.
1/3
Cells that work together to perform a specific function (or job) are called a ____.
tissue
Name the four types of tissue:
1) muscle 2) nervous 3) connective and 4)epithelial
What type of tissue is needed in the brain?
nervous
What type of tissue is blood?
connective
When tissues work together to perform a specific job, they are called ____.
organs
When organs work together to perform a specific job, they are called a ______.
system
What is a type of tissue in plants?
bark
Name two organs of a plant.
roots and leaves