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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the typical signalment and clinical signs associated with AA luxation?
Generally small breed dogs
50% less than 1 yr old
What is the pathogenesis associated with AA luxation?
congenital absence of transverse atlantoaxial ligament
Dens hypoplasia or agenesis
Dorsal angulation of dens
Separation of dens from axis
How do you diagnose AA luxation on radiographic evaluation?
Excessive separation of axis and atlas
Dorsal displacement of body of axis
Absence, deviation, or separation of dens
Malalignment of C1 and C2
How do you treat AA luxation?
neck brace
cage rest
What are the complications associated with surgicalfixation of AA luxation?
Dorsal procedures:
Wire breaks or pulls out
Spinal cord damage during passage
Incorrect implant placement
Poor reduction
C1 fracture
Nuchal ligament may break
Ventral procedures:
Tracheal necrosis
Driving implants through cord
Respiratory arrest and death
Exsanguuination from vertebral artery
Pin migration
Screw loosening/breaking
What is the post-operative management plan for a dog with AA luxation?
Neck splint
monitoring for up to 4 days post op
Nursing care
What is the pathophysiology associated with CCS?
Compressive lesions
What are the etiologies behind CCS?
1. congenital osseous malformation
2. cervical vertebral instability/chronic disc disease
3.vertbral tipping
4.ligamentum flavum or vertebral arch malformation
5.hourglass compression
What are the typical signalmant, history, and clinical signs seen with CCS?
middle-aged to old dogs
poor range of motion
shoulder atrophy
How do you diagnose CCS?
Plain radiographs
List the surgical methods of treatment for CCS.
Ventral decompression
Vertebral distraction/fusion
Dorsal decompression
What is an appropriate post-operative care plan for a dog with CCS?
pain management
bladder management
supportive care
What is Hansen's type 1 and 2 disc disease?
type one is disc extrusion

type two is disc protrusion
What dogs are affected by chondroid metaplasia (hansen's type 1)?
small middle-aged
2 years and older peak at 6 years
what dogs get fibroid metaplasia (hansen's type 2)?
German Shepherd
7-10 years old
What is myomalacia?
softening of a muscle
What are the clinical signs for cervical disk disease?
Severe neck pain
stiff gait
lowered head
guarded neck
muscle spasms
what are the clinical signs for thoracolumbar disc disease?
history of back pain
What is the surgical procedure to relieve compression of the cervical spinal cord due to IVDD?
ventral slot decompression surgery
What is the surgical procedure to relieve compression of the thoracolumbar spinal cord due to IVDD?
Dorsal laminectomy
What are the 5 characteristic signs of intervertebral disc disease on plain radiographs?
narrowed disc space
Wedged disc space
narrowed intervertbral foramina
mineralized material in the vertebral canal
narrowed articular facet
When and why is myelography necessary in dogs with IVDD?
Determine laterelization
when rads and neuro exam conflict
multiple lesions present
unable to localize lesions on plain rads
What percentage of dogs with vertebral body fracture have multiple sites affected?
20 %
When is myelography indicated for cases of spinal fracture?
suspected disc herniation
multiple spinal injuries
bone fragments in spinal canal
plain films don't fit neurologic exam
Why is client communication paramount in a case with spinal cord trauma due to spinal fracture?
bladder expression
ffecal incontinence
pressure sores
physical therapy
sling therapy
high cost
emotional investment
Which patients are candidates for surgical decompression of the IVDD?
Multiple bouts of back pain
unresponsive to treatment
what are the components of the dorsal compartment of the vertebral column?
Vertebral arch
aricular facets
joint capsule
What are the components of the ventral compartment of the vertbral column?
Vertebral body
IV disc
Longitudinal ligament