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85 Cards in this Set

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Methacholine:
Usage & Adverse Effects
AChR Agonist
Usage: To Diagnose bronchial hyperactivity
AE: Cardiac arrest at high doses
Carbachol: Usage & Adverse Effects
AChR Agonist
Usage: Last line for wide-angle glaucoma
AE: Significant nicotinic activity
Bethanachol: Usage
AChR Agonist
Post-surgical & post-partum ileus.
(Xerostomia)
Pilocarpine: Usage
AChR Agonist
Miotic agent for wide-angle glaucoma.
Xerostomia
+ physostigmine for narrow-angle glaucoma
Edrophonium: Usage
AChE Antagonist
Diagnose Myasthenia Gravis
Rivastigmine: Usage
AChE antagonist
Alzheimer's disease (2x/day)
Donepezil: Usage
AChE antagonist
Alzheimer's disease (less hepatotoxicity)
Galantamine: Usage
AChE antagonist
Alzheimer's disease (most recent, improves cognitive function)
Physostigmine: Usage & Adverse Effects
Competitive AChE substrate (tertiary amine)
Usage: Topically for wide-angle glaucoma. With pilocarpine for pre-op narrow-angle
AE: Cataracts
Neostigmine: Usage & Adverse Effects
Competitive AChE substrate (quaternary amine)
Usage: Post-op ileus & atony of bladder.
DOC for Myasthenia Gravis
AE: GI irritation
Democurium: Usage
Competitive AChE substrate
Usage: Post-op ileus
Myasthenia Gravis
Pyridostigmine: Usage
Competitive AChE substrate
Usage: DOC for Myasthenia Gravis
Nerve gas prophylaxis
Echothiophate: Usage
Irreversible AChE Inhibitor
Usage: Glaucoma
Pralidoxime: Usage
Treatment for organophosphate poisoning (with atropine & diazepam)
Atropine: Usage
Anti-muscarinic (tertiary amine)
Usage: Reverse muscarinic poisoning
Long-lasting mydriasis & cycloplegia
+diphenoxylate for diarrhea
Scopolamine: Usage
Anti-muscarinic (tertiary amine)
Usage: Motion sickness
Ipratroprium: Usage
Anti-muscarinic (quaternary amine)
Usage: COPD bronchodialator
Propantheline: Usage
Anti-muscarinic (quaternary amine)
Usage: IBS & GI disturbances
Excessive sweating
Oxybutinin/Tolterodine: Usage
Anti-muscarinic
Usage: Overactive bladder
Tropicamide: Usage
Anti-muscarinic
Usage: Mydriasis & Cycloplegia (short-acting)
Nicotine: Usage
Depolarizing ganglion blocker
Usage: Smoking cessation
Mecamylamine: Usage
Non-depolarizing ganglion blocker (tertiary amine)
Usage: Delay GI motility (improve absorption)
Tourette's
Hexamethonium: Usage
Non-depolarizing ganglion blocker
Usage: Nothing
Succinylcholine: Phases
Depolarizing neuromuscular blocker
Phase I blockade: fasciculations
Phase II blockade: desensitization
Mivacurium: Onset & Duration
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Rapid
Duration: Short
Rocuronium: Onset & Duration
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Rapid
Duration: Intermediate
Vecuronium: Onset & Duration & Metabolism
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Intermediate
Metabolism: Liver
Cisatracurium/Atracurium: Onset & Duration & Metabolism
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Intermediate
Metabolism: Spontaneous Hydrolysis
Pancuronium: Onset & Duration & Metabolism & Adverse Effect
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Long
Metabolism: Kidney
AE: Tachycardia
Pipecuronium: Onset & Duration & Metabolism
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Long
Metabolism: Kidney
Doxacuronium: Onset & Duration & Metabolism
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Long
Metabolism: None (excreted unchanged by kidney)
Metocurine: Onset & Duration & Metabolism & Adverse Effects
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Long
Metabolism: None (excreted unchanged by kidney)
AE: Moderate Histamine release, hypotension
Tubocurine: Onset & Duration & Metabolism & Adverse Effects
NMJ Blocker
Onset: Slow
Duration: Long
Metabolism: None (excreted unchanged)
AE: High histamine release, hypotension
Epinephrine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
α1&2 β1&2
Usage: Anaphylaxis, Asthma, Shock, Glaucoma
Norepinephrine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
α1&2
Usage: Decongestant, with local anaesthetics
Isoproteronal: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
β1&2
Usage: COPD
Phenylephrine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
α1&2
Usage: decongestant
Clonidine: Receptors & Usage & Adverse effects
Adrenergic agonist
α2
Usage: Hypertension
AE: Rebound HTN
Dobutamine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
β1
Usage: Shock
Dopamine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
D1&2
Usage: Shock (maintain perfusion to kidney)
Albuterol: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
β2 (short-acting)
Usage: Acute Asthma
Salmeterol: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
β2 (long-acting)
Usage: Asthma prophylaxis
Tyramine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist (Indirect)
α1&2 β1&2
Usage: None
Ephedrine: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist (Mixed-acting, more direct)
α1&2 β1&2
Usage: decongestion
obesity (no effect > 2 weeks)
Amphetamines: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist
(Mixed-acting, more indirect)
α1&2 β1&2
Usage: narcolepsy
obesity (no effect > 2 weeks)
Methylphenidate: Receptors & Usage
Adrenergic agonist (Mixed)
α1&2 β1&2
Usage: Hyperactivity
Phentolamine: Usage & Adverse Effects
Adrenergic antagonist (non-selective, reversible)
Usage: Pheochromocytoma (pre-op)
Reflex hypertension
AE: Histamine release (Acid), Cholinergic stimulation (GI motility), tachycardia, hypotension
Phenoxybenzamine: Usage & Adverse Effects
Adrenergic antagonist (non-selective, irreversible)
Usage: Pheochromocytoma (pre-op & chronic)
Raynaud's
AE: Tachycardia, hypotension, sedation
Prazosin: Usage & Adverse Effects
Adrenergic antagonist (selective α1)
Usage: Hypertension
Adverse Effects: 1st dose syncope
Terazosin: Usage & Adverse Effects
Adrenergic antagonist (selective α1)
Usage: Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
AE: 1st dose syncope
Metyrosine: MOA
Adrenergic neuronal blocker
MOA: Competes with tyrosine, depletes catecholamines at nerve terminal
Reserpine: MOA & Usage & Adverse Effects
Adrenergic neuronal blocker
MOA: Blocks packaging of NE via Mg-dependent NA/K ATPase
Usage: Hypertension
AE: Suicide, hypotension
Guanethedine/Guanedrel: MOA & Usage & Adverse Effects
Adrenergic neuronal blocker
MOA: Hydrolyzes NE-ATP in vesicles
Usage: Malignant hypertension
AE: Severe diarrhea
Atenolol: Usage & ISA & MSA
Beta-Blocker (selective)
Usage: #1 drug for Hypertension
ISA: None
MSA: None
Esmolol: Usage & ISA & MSA
Beta-Blocker (selective)
Usage: anti-arrhythmic, despite lack of MSA (fast-acting)
ISA: None
MSA: None
Metoprolol: Usage & ISA & MSA & Adverse Effects
Beta-Blocker (selective)
Usage: Migraine prophylaxis (high lipid solubility)
ISA: None
MSA: Some
AE: Insomnia, Sedation
Pindolol: Usage & ISA & MSA
Beta-Blocker (non-selective)
Usage: CHF, HTN in asthmatics (ISA)
ISA: High
MSA: Some
Propranolol: Usage & ISA & MSA
Beta-Blocker (non-selective)
Usage: Migraine prophylaxis (High lipid solubility), anti-arrhythmic (MSA)
ISA: None
MSA: High
AE: Mouth numbing (MSA)
Timolol: Usage & ISA & MSA
Beta-Blocker (non-selective)
Usage: Topical chronic glaucoma (MSA)
ISA: None
MSA: High
Labetolol/Carvedilol: Usage & Adverse Effects
Beta-Blocker (non-selective & α1)
Usage: Hypertension
AE: NO cold fingers (α1 block)
Amantadine: MOA & Administration & Usage
Tricyclic amine
MOA: Blocks viral uncoating
Admin: PO (with vaccination)
Usage: Influenza A prophylaxis (releaves Sx)
Parkinson's (causes release of DA)
Rimantadine: MOA & Administration & Usage
Tricyclic Amine
MOA: Blocks viral uncoating
Admin: PO (with vaccination)
Usage: Influenza A prophylaxis (alleviates Sx)
Zanamivir: MOA & Administration & Usage
Neuraminidase inhibitor
MOA: blocks viral release, increases viral aggregation
Admin: Inhaled dry powder
Usage: Influenza A & B
Oseltimivir: MOA & Administration & Usage & Adverse Effects
Neuraminidiase inhibitor
MOA: blocks viral release, increases viral aggregation
Admin:PO (prodrug)
Usage: Influenza A & B
AE: N/V
Ribavarin: MOA & Administration & Usage & Adverse Effects
Nucleoside analogue (Guanosine)
MOA: Inhibits RNA Pol, GTP, & capping
Admin: Aerosol, PO not effective
Usage: Influenza A & B, RSV, Viral hepatitis (w/ interferon)
AE: Hemolytic anemia
Acyclovir: MOA & Usage
Nucleoside analogue (guanosine)
MOA: Inhibits RNA Pol, Chain termination
Usage: HSV, VZV (immunocompromised)
Trifluridine: MOA & Administration & Usage
Nucleoside analogue (guanosine)
MOA: Inhibits RNA Pol, Chain termination
Admin: Topical
Usage: DOC for Herpes keratitis
Vidarabine: MOA & Usage
Nucleoside analogue (guanosine)
MOA: Inhibits RNA Pol, Chain termination
Usage: Neonatal herpes, Herpes encephalitis
Ganciclovir: MOA & Usage & Adverse Effects
Nucleoside analogue (guanosine)
MOA: Inhibits RNA Pol, Chain termination
Usage: CMV retinitis, CMV pneumonia
AE: Bone marrow suppression
Cidofovir: Usage
Nucleoside analoge (cytosine)
Usage: CMV retinitis (ganciclovir resistant)
Foscarnet: MOA & Usage & Adverse Effects
Pyrophosphate analogue
MOA: Inhibits DNA Pol
Usage: CMV retinitis (ganciclovir resistant)
AE: Decreased renal function
Interferon: Usage & Adverse Effects
Glycoprotein
Usage: Chronic Hep B&C (w/ Ribavarin)
Hairy Cell leukemia
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Condyloma accuminatum
VZV
AE: Neutropenia
Sulfonamides: MOA & Spectrum
MOA: PABA analogue competitively inhibits dihydropteroate reductase (PABA -> dihydrofolic acid), inhibits purine synthesis (bacterioSTATIC)
Spectrum: Gram +, Gram -, Chlamydia, Nocardia
Trimethoprim: MOA & Spectrum
MOA: Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (dihydrofolate -> tetrahydrofolate), inhibits purine synthesis (bacterioSTATIC)
Spectrum: Gram +, Gram -, Chlamydia, Nocardia
Quinolones: MOA & Spectrum
MOA: Inhibits DNA Gyrase
Spectrum: Gram +, Gram -, Chlamydia
Amphotericin B: MOA & Absorption & Usage & Adverse Effects
Polyene macrolide
MOA: Binds sterols in PM, forming pores
Abs: Poor
Usage: Broad Spectrum antifungal
DOC for systemic fungus
AE: Binds cholesterol
Nystatin: MOA & Absorption & Usage
Polyene macrolide
MOA: Binds sterols in PM, forming pores
Abs: Extremely Poor (topical only)
Usage: Dermal, oropharyngeal fungus
Vaginal candidiasis
Flucytosine: MOA & Absorption & Usage & Adverse Effects
Antimetabolite
MOA: Blocks fungal RNA/DNA Pol
Abs: Good (PO)
Usage: Cryptococcal meningitis (w/ Amphotericin B)
Blastomycoses (w/ Itraconazole)
AE: Bone-marrow suppression
Griseofulvin: MOA & Absorption & Usage
Cytoskeletal agent
MOA: Inhibits microtubules -> blocks fungal mitosis (fungiSTATIC)
Abs: Poor (increased w/ fatty foods)
Usage: Dermatophytosis (long-term treatment)
athelete's foot, ringworm
Ketoconazole: MOA & Absorption & Usage & Adverse Effects
Imidazole
MOA: Inhibits fungal ergosterol synthesis
Abs: Low (increased w/ food)
Usage: Mucocutaneous candidiasis
Coccidiomycosis
Seborrheic dermatitis (in shampoos)
AE: Interferes with steroid synthesis (useful for Cushing's Tx)
Inhibits P450
Miconazole/Clotrimazole: MOA & Absorption & Usage
Imidazole
MOA: Inhibits ergosterol synthesis
Abs: Extremely poor (Topical only)
Usage: Dermatophytosis
Vulvovaginal candidiasis
Oropharyngeal thrush
Itraconazole: MOA & Usage
Triazole
MOA: Inhibits ergosterol synthesis
Usage: Most potent azole for systemic fungal infections
DOC for persistent dermatophytoses
Aspergillus
Fluconazole: MOA & Absorption & Usage
Triazole
MOA: Inhibits ergosterol synthesis
Abs: Good (Excellent CSF)
Usage: DOC for Cryptococcal meningitis (unless life threatening -> Amphotericin B)
Mucocutaneous candidiasis
Prophylactic for transplants
Naftidine/Terbinafine: MOA & Usage
Allylamine
MOA: Inhibits fungal squalene metabolism
Usage: Most mucocutaneous mycoses
Nail infections
Not effective against candida
Caspofungin: MOA & Usage
Echinocandin
MOA: Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Usage: Invasive candidiasis
Aspergillosis
Not effective against cryptococcus