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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an official declaration that someone is not guilty of a charge
acquittal
the authority of a court to review decisions of inferior courts
appellate jurisdiction
An adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers
bicameral
Ten amendments to the Constitution
bill of rights
aimed at the soft-money problem. They ban soft-money contributions to political parties
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (aka McCain-Feingold Bill)
a voting process in which voters receive a long ballot containing the name of all contenders, regardless of party, and can vote however they choose.
blanket primary
the presidents appointed advisor; heads of the Executive Departments
cabinet
as a nominating device, a group of like-minded people who meet to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election
caucus
to obtain and analyze information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons and reporting such information to branches of the government.
central intelligence agency
a party nominating election in which only declared party members can vote.
closed primary
written by Thomas Paine; denounced British rule and contributed to the American Revolution; 1776
common sense
those powers that both the National Government and the States possess and exercise
concurrent power
gathering of delegates to create the articles of confederation.
constitutional convention
those powers, expressed, implied, or inherent, granted to the National Government by the Constitution
delegated powers
exists where the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves in mass meetings
direct democracy
a law applied to an act committed before its passage
expost facto justice
evidence gained as the result of an illegal act by police cannot be used against the person from whim it was seized
exculsionary rule
The privilege of the president to speak freely without fear of being sued
executive privilege
a government handing over someone guilty of a crime to another
extradition
redrawing the district lines to create a majority, minority, or cross section; almost decides the outcome of the election in that district
gerrymandering
the formal device by which a person can be accused of a serious crime
grand jury
a formal complaint before a grand jury which charges the accused with one or more crimes
indictment
support is given to one legislation with the understanding the favor will be returned
logrolling
– people who believe that the Constitution changes interpretations with time
loose constructionist
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility
magna carta
enforce legislators to vote within party lines
minority and majority whips
The leader of the majority party in a legislature, as in the U.S. Senate or House of Representatives
majority leaders
The head of the minority party in a legislative body
minority leaders
the constitutional rights which police must read to a suspect before questioning can occur
miranda rule
An organization under the Department of Defense established in 1952; responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and the protection of US governmental communication and information systems.
national security agency
a executive branch body responsible for coordination policy on national security issues and advising chief executive on ;matters related to national security.
national security council
elastic clause or basket clause; creates the implied powers of the federal government.
necessary and proper clause
elections in which candidates are not identified by party labels.
nonpartisan elections
the largest office within the Executive Branch; oversees activities of federal agencies
office of management and budget
office in the white house that coordinates all of the presidents and some of his cabinet members activities
office of political development
when people from any political party have the right to vote
open elections
a party-nominating election in which any qualified voter can take part.
open primary
power of the president to issue executive orders; originates form the Constitution and acts of Congress.
ordinance power
the power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court
original jurisdiction
release from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime, by the president or the governor
pardon
a form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier and that official’s cabinet
parlamentary government
A party platform is a political party's statement of governmental principle and policy. Some historians consider the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798–1799 the first party platform
party platforms
the courts that try defendants 12 members in the court room
petit jury
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine rights of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
petition of right
when the president doesn’t sigh or reject a bill within the tie allowed
pocket veto
Basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed.
popular sovereignty
government spending intended to benefit constituents of a politician in return for their political support.
pork barrel projects
The presiding officer of a senate; in Congress, the Vice President of the U.S.; in a State’s legislature, either the lieutenant Governor or a Senator
President of the Senate
an election in which a party’s voters choose State party organization’s delegates to their party’s national convention and/or express a preference for their part’s presidential nomination
presidential primary
Law specifying the order of presidential succession following the Vice President
Presidential succession act of 1947
reasonable grounds, a reasonable suspicion of crime
probably cause
the government must employ fair procedures and methods
procedural due process
sets up an automatic reapportionment; provides: permanent size of the House as 435 members, census numbers sent to president, within 60 days accept it and become effective
reapportionemnt act of 1929
a small group of people, chosen by the people to act as their representatives, expresses the popular will
representative democracy
an official postponement of the execution of a sentence
reprieve
those powers that the Constitution does not grant to the National Government and does not, at the same time, deny to the States
reserved power
items added to bills often having nothing to do with them
riders
a primary in which the top two vote-getters in the first direct primary face one another
run off primary
a court order authorizing a search
search warrant
unwritten; top post are reserved in each chamber for members with the longest records of service
seniority rule
The presiding officer of the House of Representatives, chosen by and from the majority party in the House
speaker of the house
people who believe that the interpretation of the Constitution can not change with time
strict constructionist
the constitution is the highest law in the land; no one is above the Constitution
supremacy clause
Plan of government adopted by the Continental Congress after the American Revolution; established “a firm league of friendship” among the States, but allowed few important powers to the central government
articles of confederation
18th century movement advocating reason as a basis of authority.
the enlightenment
the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964.
the solid south
The mid-level appellate courts; decides appeals from the district courts within its federal judicial circuit
U.S. court of appeals
The general trial courts; both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court; a court of both law and equity
U.S. District courts
adjective describing a legislative body with one chamber
unicameral
A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency
unitarian government
when the congress looses confidence that the person that has the power to lead the court can do a good job and they would be removed from the office and it is very rare for this to happen
vote of no confidence
limits the powers of the president to wage war without the approval of Congress.
War Powers Resolution of 1973
The White House Office is the collective name for the President's assistants. It was created by Reorganization Act No. 1 of 1939, on the recommendation of the Brownlow Commission, a Presidential study group. It concluded that to perform his many functions “the President needs help."
white house office
an order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for review; “to be more certain”
writ of certiorari
a court order which prevents unjust arrests and imprisonments
writ of habeas corpus