• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/101

Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
affect
a pattern of observalbe behaviors that is the expression of s subjectively experienced feeling state - refers to more fluctuating changes in emotion
blunted affect
significant reduction in the intensity of emotional expression
flat affect
absence or near absence of any signs of affective expression
inappropriate affect
discordance between affective expression and the content of speech or ideation
labile affect
abnormal variability in affect with repeated, rapid, and abrupt shifts in affective expression
restricted or constricted affect
mild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression
agitation (psychomotor agitation)
excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension - repetitive pacing, pulling of clothes, etc.
agonist medication
a chemical entity extrinsic to endogenously produced substances that acts on a receptor and is capable of producing the maximal effect that can be produced by stimulating that receptor
agonist/antagonist medication
a chemical entity extrinsic to endogenously produced substances that acts on a family of receptors (such as mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptors) in such a fash that it is an agonist or partial agonist on one type of receptor and an antagonist on another
alogia
an impoverishment in thinking that is inferred from observing speech and language behavior
amnesia
loss of memory
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory of events that occur after the onset of the etiological condition or agent
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory of events that occurred before the onset of the etiological condition or agent
antagonist
a chemical entity extrinsic to endogenously produced substances that occupies a receptor, produces no physiologic effects, and prevents endogenous and exogenous chemical from producing an effect on that receptor
anxiety
the apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune accompanied by a feeling of dysphoria or somatic symptoms of tension
aphasia
an impairment in the understanding or transmission of ideas by language in any of its forms - reading, writing, or speaking - that is due to injury or disease of the brain centers involved in language
aphonia
an inability to produce speech sounds that require the use of the larynx that is not due to a lesion in the central nervous system
ataxia
partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement
attention
the ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity
avolition
an inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities - when severe enough to be considered pathological, avolition is pervasive and prevents the person from completing many different types of activities such as work
catalepsy
waxy flexibility - rigid maintenance of a body position over an extended period of time
cataplexy
episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collaspsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise
catatonic behavior
marked motor abnormalities including motoric immobility (i.e., catalepsy or stupor), certain types of excessive motor activity (apparently purposeless agitation not influence by external stimuli), extremem negativism (apparent motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts to be moved), or mutism, posturing or stereotyped movements, and echolalia or echopraxia
conversion symptom
a loss of, or alteration in, voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting a neurological or general medical condition
defense mechanism
automatic psychological process that protects the individual against anxiety and from awareness of internal or external stressor or dangers such as projection, suppression, denial, etc.
delusion
a false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everyone else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof of evidence to the contrary
bizarre delusion
involves a phenomenon that the person's culture would regard as totally implausible
delusional jealousy
the delusion that one's sexual partner is unfaithful
erotomanic delusion
a delusion that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with the individual
grandiose delusion
a delusion of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person
of being controlled deulusion
a delusion in which feelings, impulses, thoughts, or actions are experienced as being under the control of some external force rather than being under one's own control
mood-congruent psychotic features
delusions or hallucinations whose content is entirely consistent with the typical themes of a depressed or manic mood
mood-incongruent psychotic features
delusions or hallucinations whose content is not consistent with the typical themes of a depressed or manic mood
of reference delusion
a delusion whose theme is that events, objects, or other person in one's immediate environment have a particular and unusual significance - usually negative or pejorative nature, but also may be grandiose
persecutory delusion
a delusion in which the central theme is that one (or someone to whom one is close) is being attacked, harassed, cheated, persecuted, or conspired against
somatic delusion
a delusion whose main content pertains to the appearance or functioning of one's body
thought broadcasting delusion
the delusion that one's thoughts are being broadcast out loud so that they can be perceived by others
thought insertion delusion
the delusion that certain of one's thoughts are not one's own, but rather are inserted into one's mind
depersonalization
an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of , one's mental processes or body
derailment ("loosening of associations")
a pattern of speech in which a person's ideas slip off one track onto another that is completely unrelated or only obliquely related, in moving from one sentence or clause to another, the person shifts the topic
derealization
an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unreal
disorientation
confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person)
dissociation
a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment - the distrubance may be sudden or gradual, transient or chronic
distractibility
the inability to maintain attention, that is, the shifting from one area or topic to another with minimal provocation, or attention being drawn too frequently to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli
dysarthria
imperfect articulation of speech due to disturbances of muscular control
dyskinesia
distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscular activity
dyssomnia
primary disorders of sleep or wakefulness characterezed by insomnia or hypersonmia as the major presenting symptom -disorders of the amount, quality, or timing of sleep
dystonia
disordered tonicity of muscles
echolalia
the pathological, parrotlike, and apparently senseless repetition of a word or phrase just spoken by another person
flashback
a recurrence of a memory, feeling, or perceptual experience from the past
flight of ideas
a nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech with abrupt changes from topic to topic that are usually based on understandable associations, distracting stimuli, or plays on words - when sever speech may be disorganized and incoherent
gender dysphoria
a persistent aversion toward some or all of those physical characteristics or social roles that connote one's own biological sex
gender identity
a person's inner conviction of being male or female
gender role
attitudes, patterns of behavior and personality attributes defined by the culture in which the person lives as stereotypically "masculine" or "feminine" social roles
hallucination
a sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ
auditory hallucination
involving the perception of sound, most commonly of voices
gustatory hallucination
involving the perception of taste (usually unpleasant)
olfactory hallucination
involving the perception of odor, such as of burning rubber or decaying fish
somatic hallucination
a hallucination involving the perception of a physical experience localized within the body (such as a feeling of electricity)involving the perception of a physical experience localized with the body
tactile hallucination
involving the perception of being touched or of something being under one's skin - most common sensation of electric shocks and something creeping or crawling on or under the skin
visual hallucination
involving sight, which may consist of formed images, such as of people, or of unformed images, such as flashes of light
hyperacusis
painful sensitivity to sounds
hypersonmia
excessive sleepiness, as evidenced by prolonged nocturnal sleep, difficulty maintaining an alert awake state durng the day, or undesired daytime sleep episodes
ideas of reference
the feeling that casual incidents and external events have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person
incoherence
speech or thinking that is essentially incomprehensible to others because words or phrases are joined together without a logical or meaningful connections
insomnia
a subjective complaint of difficulty falling or staying asleep or poor sleep quality
initial insomnia
difficulty in falling asleep
middle insomnia
awakening in the middle of the night followed by eventually falling back to sleep, but with difficulty
terminal insomnia
awakening before one's usual waking time and being unable to return to sleep
intersex condition
a condition in which an individual show intermingling, in warious degrees, of the characteristics of each sex, including physical form, reproductive organs, and sexual behavior
macropsia
the visual perception that objects are larger than they actually are
magical thinking
the erroneous belief that one's thoughts, words, or actions will cause or prevent a specific outcome in some way that defies commonly understood laws of cause and effect
micropsia
the visual perception that objects are smaller than they actually are
mood
a pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world
dysphoric mood
an unpleasant mood, such as sadness, anxiety, or irritability
elevated mood
an exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation - person with elevated mood may describe feeling "high," "ecstatic," etc.
euthymic mood
mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood
expansive mood
lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of one's significance or importance
irritable mood
easily annoyed and provoked to anger
nystagmus
involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes that consist of of small amplitude rapid tremors in one direction and a larger, slower, recurrent sweep in the opposite direction
overvalued idea
an unreasonable and sustained belief that is maintained with less than delusional intensity (i.e., the person is able to ackowledge the possibility that the belief may not be true)
panic attacks
discrete periods of sudden onset of intense apprehension, ferafulness, or terror, often associated with feeling of impending doom - during these attacks there are sysmptoms such as shortness of breath or smothering sensations; pappitations, pounding hert, or accelerated heart rate; chest pain or discomfort' choking,; and fear of going crazy or losing control
paranoid ideation
ideation, of less than delusional proportions, involving suspiciousness or the belief that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated
parasonmia
abnormal behavior or physiological events ocuuring durng sleep or sleep-wake transitions
personality
enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself
phobia
a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that results in a compelling desire to avoid it
pressured speech
speech that is increased in amount, accelaerated, and difficult or impossilbe to interrupt - usually it is also loud and emphatic
prodrom
an early premonitory sign or symptom of a disorder
psychomotor retardation
visible generalized slowing of movements and speech
psychotic
a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing
residual phase
the phase of an illness that occurs after remission of the florid symptoms or the full syndrome
sex
a perons's biological status as male, femal, or uncertain
sign
an objective manifestation of a pathological condition - signs are observed by the examiner rather than reported by the affected individual
stereotyped movement
repetitive, seemingly driven, and nonfunctional motor behavior (body rocking, head banging, self-biting, etc.)
stressor, psychosocial
any life event or life change that may be associated temporally with the onset, occurrence, or exacerbation of a mental disorder
stupor
a state of unresponsiveness with immobility and mutism
symptom
a subjective manifestation of pathological condition - symptoms are reported by the affected individual rather than observed by the examiner
syndrome
a grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent co-occurrence, that may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis, course, familial pattern, or treatemtn selection
synesthesia
a condition in which a sensory experience associated with one modality occurs when another modality is stimulated, for example, a sound produces the sensation of a particular color
tic
an involuntary, sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization
transsexualims
severe gender sysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex