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35 Cards in this Set

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How do Thiazides work?(hydrochlorothiazide)
Decrease reabsorption of sodium, water, chloride, and bicarbonate in the distal convoluted tubule.
Contraindicated in patients allergic to sulfonamides
PENICILLINS
Penicillin G - (Pfizerpen)
Action
Bind to bacterial cell wall, resulint in cell death.
Bactericidal
Active against most Gram-positvie organisms
- including many streptococcie (s. pneumoniae, GROUP A beta-hemolytic strep)
Name three Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
LosarTAN (Cozaar)
IrbesarTAN (Avaprol)
ValsarTAN (Diovan)
Penicillin V - (Apo-Pen VK, Beepen-VK, Nadopen-V, Novo-Pen-VK, PenVeel, PenVee K, PVF K, Veetids)
Resists acid degradion in the GI tract.
Absorption of Penicillin V may be decreased by Neomycin.
DELAYED AND PROLONGED IM ABSORPTION resulting in sustained therapeutic blood levels.
What is the effect of ACE-inhibitors on HR?
ACE-inhibitors decrease HR.
Isoniazid (538)
(INH, Isotamine, Nydrazid, PMS Isoniazid, Laniazid)
ANTITUBERCULAR
Action -
Inhibits mycobacterial cell wall synthesis and interferes with metabolism.

Ther. Effect -
Bacteriostatic or bactericidal action against susceptible mycobacteria.

Well absorbed by PO or IM.
Crosses BBB.
Crosses Placenta.
What are three classes of antianginals?
Nitrates
Beta-Blockers
Calcium Channel Blockers
Rifampin (896)
(Rifadin, Rimactane, Rofact)
ANTITUBERCULAR
Action -
Inhibits RNA synthesis by blocking RNA transcription in susceptible organisms

Ther. Effect -
Bactericidal action against susceptible organism.
Broad spectrum against -
Mycobacterium, Staph. Aureus, H. influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria meningitidis
What is the affect of Dig on HR?
Dig decreases HR.
Ethambutol (1188)
(Myambutol)
ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS OR OTHER MYCOBACTERIALDISEASES (WITH AT LEAST ONE OTHER DRUG)
BABA often end in ?
OLOL
How do Loop Diuretics work?
Inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Produce diuresis upto 10 times > than thiazides
What is the effect of Beta-adrenergic blocking agents on HR?
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents DECREASE HR
Name three vasodilators
Isosorbide Dinitrate
Nitrates
Nitroglycerin
Name an aldosterone antagonist?
Spironolactone
How do aldosterone antagonists work?
By supressing the effects of aldosterone (sodium retention and potassium excretion), resulting in sodium excretion and potassium retention
What is the affect of adrenergics on the heart rate?
Adrenergics increase HR
What are the normal ranges for HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides?
LDL - Normal = less than 130 mg/dL
High = more than 160 mg/dL
HDL - High = more than 60 mg/dL
Low = less than 35 mg/dL
Triglycerides
Normal = less than 200 mg/dL
High = more than 400 mg/dL
Name two adrenergic drugs
Dopamine
Dobutamine
List FIVE classes of ANTI-Hypertensives all of which DECREASE HR
ACE Inhibitors
AIIRAs
antiadrenergics
calcium channel blockers
diuretics
direct vasodilators
ACE Inhibitors often end in ?
PRIL
Name three ACE-inhibitors
CaptoPRIL (capoten)
BenazePRIL (lotensin)
RamiPRIL (altace)
enalaPRIL
lisinoPRIL
quinaPRIL
What is the affect of antianginals on HR?
Antianginals DECREASE HR
Name three calcium-channel blockers.
DILTIAZEM (CARDIZEM)
NIFEDIPINE (PROCARDIA)
VERAPAMIL (Calan)
How do adrenergics work?
Used in acute heart failure, usually in ICU given by IV.
Strengthen myocardial contraction (inotropic or cardiotonic effect)
Increase cardiac output.
May cause tachycardia and hypertension.
Increase cardiac workload.
Increase oxygen consumption.
How do ACE-inhibitors work?
Decrease HR
Dilate veins and arteries
Decrease Preload
Decrease Afterload
Given usually with a diuretic
Suppresses Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system, thus resulting in excretion of sodium and water
How do Calcium-Channel blockers work?
- used in angina, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, PSVT
- Dilate coronary artery and dilate peripheral arteries
- Decrease contractility
- Increase blood flow to coronary arteries
- coronary artery gets blood flow during diastole
- Decreases workload, heart doesn't contract as hard pumping against periphery
- Decrease blood pressure
What is the affect of AIIRAs on HR?
AIIRAs DECREASE HR?
AIIRAs often end in ?
TAN
What are s/s of Dig toxicity?
Signs/Symptoms of Dig Toxicity
1) Bradycardia
2) Irregular rhythms
Dig Toxicity can cause every type of arrhythmia
3) Complaints of n/v
4) Anorexia
5) Confusion
6) Visual complains (yellow halo around lights)
7) Decreased appetite
How do Beta-adrenergic blocking agents work?
Beta blockers suppress activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
By suppressing the sympathetic nervous system, HR is DECREASED.
What is the affect of Calcium-Channel blockers on HR?
Calcium-Channel Blockers DECREASE HR
What is Lovastatin?
Anti-Lipid Drug
Name five Beta-adrenergic blocking agents
AcebutOLOL
AtenOLOL
MetroprOLOL
NadOLOL
PropranOLOL
How do AIIRAs work?
Similar to ACE Inhibitors
Used often when patients are unable to use the ACE inhibitors
These drugs compete with Angiotensin II for receptor sites.
They DECREASE BP by decreasing systemic vascular resistance.
DECREASE HR