Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/17

Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cholesterol
Component of all cell membranes and is required for synthesis of:
-Hormones
-Bile salts
Endogenous and Exogenous Cholesterol
Exogenous: dietary sources
Endogenous:
-manufactured in the body, primarily the liver
-An enzyme,(HMG CoA), is an essential catalyst in the hepatic synthesis of endogenous cholesterol
Lipoproteins
-Serve as carriers for transporting cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood b/c they allow them to become soluble for transport
-LDL & HDL lipoproteins are primarily composed of cholesterol
HDL
-Higher percentage of protein and less lipid
-Promote cholesterol REMOVAL (carrying it back to liver for storage)
LDL
-Lower percentage of protein
-DELIVER cholesterol to the tissues
-Contribute significantly to heart disease and primary targets of drug therapy
VLDL
(very low density) lipoproteins contain triglycerides as their core lipids
HMG CoA
An essentail catalyst in the hepatic synthesis of endogenous cholesterol
HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins)
-Widely effective, used, and minimal SEs
-Inhibit HMG CoA reductase decreasing cholesterol production and increasing synthesis of LDL receptors on liver cells which removes cholesterol
-Responses are dose dependent occuring w/in 2 weeks; given orally
-Prototype: lipitor
Lipitor
-Statin
-DON'T TAKE WHEN PREGNANT
-Hepatotoxicity RARE- monitor liver function; myositis RARE
Lipitor interactions
-Do not take with macrolides and grapefruit juice
Bile Acid Binding Resins
-Cholestyramine and colestipol
-Form an insoluble mass with bile salts in the intestine increasing their excretion
-LDL levels lowered b/c they're used to create new bile acids
-Excreted unchanged in the stool
Adverse Effects: Bile Acid Binding Resins
-Nausea, bloating, constipation
-No systemic absorption
Colesevelam (Welchol)
A new drug in this category (resins) that is better tolerated and does not block the absorption of fat soluble vitamins and most drugs
Nicotinic Acid (Niacor)
Decreases the production of VLDLs
-Increases HDL levels more effectively than any other drug
-SEs more common
SEs: Nicotinic Acid
Intense flushing and itching, GI upset, hepatotoxicity
Fibric Acid Derivatives (Fibrates)
-Most affective drugs for reducing VLDL levels
-Raise HDL levels but do not reduce LDL levels
Blockade of Cholesterol Absorption
Ezetimibe: a new drug that acts on the cells of the intestinal brush border to block cholesterol absorption
-Used adjunct to diet modification, often in combination w/ statins
-Generally well tolerated