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28 Cards in this Set

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What are serum lipids?
fats found in the bloodstream
What serum lipids are found in blood?
cholesterol, cholesterol esters (compounds), phospholipids, and triglycerides
How do these lipids travel through the bloodstream?
they are transported in the blood as part of large molecules called lipoproteins
What is Hyperlipidemia?
an elevation of blood lipid levels
What is atherosclerosis (arteriosclerosis)?
the narrowing of the arterial interior caused by buildup of hard, thick deposits (plaque) in the walls of an artery.
How do Statins work?
They lower cholesterol by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme in the liver stimulates LDL receptors, resulting in an increased clearance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from the bloodstream and a decrease in blood cholesterol levels.
What type of drug contains the stem -vastatin in the name?
HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors -statins
What type of drug contains the stem -fibrate in the word?
antihyperlipidemics; hypolipidemic agents
What type of cardiovascular agent is used to treat high LDL levels?
HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors
What does LDL stand for?
low-density lipoprotein
What does HDL stand for?
high-density lipoprotein
What can excess amounts of LDL lead to?
blocked blood vessels and cardiovascular problems
What are Bile Sequestering Agents used to treat?
they are used to reduce elevated serum cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia)
How do Bile Sequestrants work?
Bile sequestrants bind with bile acids in the intestine to make them nonresorbable.
What are bile acids and where are they produced?
Bile acids are secreted from the gallbladder and liver into the intestine during ingestion. They emulsify the fat and lipid particles from food so that they can be absorbed.
How do the fibric acid derivatives work?
they lower triglyceride levels and increase HDL cholesterol.
What type of drug is Cholestyramine (Questran)?
a bile sequestering hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Colestipol (Colestid)?
a bile sequestering hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Fenofibrate (Tricor)?
a fibric acid derivative, hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Gemfibrozil (Lopid)?
a fibric acid derivative, hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Lovastin (Mevacor)?
a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Pravastatin (Pravachol)?
a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Simvastatin (Zocor)?
a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Fluvastatin (Lescol)?
a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
What type of drug is Atorvastatin (Lipitor)?
a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, hypolipidemic agent
What is Nicotinic acid used to treat?
Hypolipidemia
What type of drug has the stem -fibr- within its drug name?
Fibric acid derivatives, hypolipidemic agents
What are three types of Lipoproteins
1. Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL)
– Associated with triglycerides
– Decreases with lowering saturated fats in diet

2. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
– Associated with cholesterol
– Does not decrease with lowering cholesterol

3. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
– Increases with exercise - protectant