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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Parkinsons affects the _____ system of motor neurons.
Extrapyramidal
Parkinsons has a lack of the neurotransmitter _______ whose actions are _______. (inhibitory/excitatory)
Dopamine
Inhibitory
Acetylcholine excess stimulates excess GABA activity (inhibitory) in Parkinson's Disease.
T or F
True
What two drugs are used in Parkinson's Disease?
Dopaminergic agonists
Acetylcholine antagonists
Levodopa is a _______.
Dopaminergic agent
Promotes synthesis of dopamine
Levodopa is active following uptake.
T or F
False
Levodopa is a pro-drug
What are the adverse side effects of levodopa?
Dyskinesia (movement disorders)
What foods should be avoided on levodopa?
High Protein Content Foods
What drug is used with Levodopa to enhance drug absorption?
Carbidopa
What does Carbidopa do?
Inhibits loss of levodopa in the periphery by enzyme decarboxylation
Pramipexole is a _______.
Nonergot Dopamine Agonist
What is the dopamine agonist used in Parkinson's Disease?
Pramipexole; First-line Drug
Entacapone is a _____.
COMT Inhibitor
What is the prototype COMT inhibitor?
Entacapone
What does entacapone do?
Used in combination with levadopa to inhibit COMT metabolism; Enhances levodopa
What is Selegiline?
MAO-B inhibitor
What does MAO-B do?
Inactivates Dopamine; Breakdown of dopamine in brain.
What is the prototype of a MAO-B inhibitor?
Selegiline
AD is marked by _____.
Neural Degeneration, Neuritic Plaques, Neurofibrillary Tangles
AD has a decrease of ______ an important neurotransmitter in the formation of memories.
Acetylcholine
What are the typical drugs given to AD patients?
Cholinesterase Inhibitors
What is the most common cholinesterase inhibitor given to AD patients?
Donepezil
Memantine is a _____.
NMDA receptor antagonist
What is the prototype for NMDA receptor antagonist?
Memantine
What causes MS?
Autoimmune inflammation and myelin destruction in CNS only
What are the 4 subtypes of MS?
Relapse-remitting
Secondary Progressive
Primary Progressive
Progressive-Relapsing
What drugs are used in MS?
Immunomodulators
Symptom Treatment
Interferon Beta is _____.
Immunomodulatory drug used in MS
What is the prototype immunomodulatory drug in MS?
Interferon Beta
What are the adverse effects of Interferon Beta?
Flu-like Reactions
Myelosupression
What is Glatiramer Acetate?
Drug similar to myelin protein to protect myelin
What is the adverse effects of Glatiramer Acetate?
Chest Pain
Mitoxantrone is a ______ used in MS.
immunosupressant
What is the prototype immunosupressant in MS?
Mitoxantrone
Epilepsy is caused by high frequency discharges from a ____.
Focus
What are the mechanisms of AEDs?
Suppression of Sodium Influx
Suppression of Calcium Influx
Antagonism of Glutamate
Potentiating of GABA
Phenytonin is a ______.
Selective inhibition of sodium channels; Used in epilepsy
What is the prototype drug of sodium channel inhibition?
Phenytonin
Phenytonin has a (high/low) therapeutic index.
Low; Highly Toxic
What are the adverse effects of phenytonin?
Nystagmus
Fetal Harm
What is a prototype drug for epilepsy with inhibition of sodium channels not for absence seizures?
Carbamazepine
What is the prototype drug most widely used in all seizures?
Valproic Acid
What is the most severe effect of carbamazepine?
Blood count abnormalities
What drug potentates the effects of GABA?
Phenobarbital
Phenobarbital can cause lethargy and depression.
T or F
True
Baclofen is a ______.
GABA agonist
What is the prototype drug used for spasitcity?
Baclofen
Diazepam
Diazepam is a _________.
GABA agonist
Both Diazepam and Baclofen can cause CNS sedation.
T or F
True
Dantrolene is used for ____ .
Muscle spasticity
Dantrolene is a _____.
Calcium reducer in skeletal muscle