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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an arrythmia?
an irregular heart rhythym
What is the cardiac cycle?
the contraction and relaxation of the heart
What are the top chambers of the heart called?
the atria
What are the bottom chambers of the heart called?
the ventricles
Which side of the heart receives the deoxygenated blood through pulmonary circulation?
the right side of the heart
Which side of the heart receives the oxygenated blood through systemic circulation?
the left side of the heart
What is the SA node and what does it do?
it is the fastest generating electrical impulse area of the heart and it sets the pace
What do the AV node and the Purkinje Fibers do?
they transmit the impulse
What is a blockage by a clot called?
an embolism
What should be the highest readings for blood pressure for a healthy adult?
135/85
Which number in a blood pressure reading is the systolic pressure?
the first number
Which number in a blood pressure reading is the diastolic pressure?
the second number
What is systolic pressure?
the value that represents the maximum pressure as the heart contracts to pump blood out
What is diastolic pressure?
the value that represents the minimum pressure in the artery as the heart relaxes
What are antianginals used to treat?
cardiac related chest pain resulting from ischemic heart disease
What do patients with ischemic heart disease suffer from?
a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the myocardium, heart muscle
What type of cardiovascular agent are nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers examples of?
antianginals
What are antiarrhythmics used to treat?
irregular heart rhythms
How do antiarrhythmics work?
they regulate the conduction activity of the heart by inhibiting abnormal pacemaker cells or recurring abnormal impulses and restoring a normal rhythm
What type of cardiovascular agents include beta blockers and drugs that block sodium channels, potassium ion channels, and calcium channels?
antiarrhythmics
What are antihypertensives used to treat?
they reduce a sustained elevation in blood pressure
How do beta blockers help to lower blood pressure?
they reduce cardiac output
How do diuretics help to lower blood pressure?
they decrease fluid volume
How do ACE inhibitors help to lower blood pressure?
they reduce salt and water retention and inhibit vascular constriction
How do calcium channel blockers help to lower blood pressure?
they relax blood vessels
What do vasopressors do?
they increase blood pressure
What does LDL stand for?
low-density lipoprotein
What does HDL stand for?
high-density lipoprotein
What can excess amounts of LDL lead to?
blocked blood vessels and cardiovascular problems
What type of cardiovascular agent is used to treat high LDL levels?
HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors
What do thrombolytics do?
they are used to dissolve blood clots
What do anticoagulants do?
they are used to prevent the formation of blood clots
What is an embolus?
blood clot
What is alteplase?
a thrombolytic agent
What do beta blockers do?
reduce the oxygen demands of the heart muscle
What do calcium channel blockers do?
relax the heart by reducing heart conduction
What do diuretics do?
decrease blood pressure by decreasing blood volume by eliminating salts and water through urination
What do ACE inhibitors do?
they relax the blood vessels
What type of drugs end in -pril?
ACE inhibitors
What are -sartan drugs a subgroup of?
ACE inhibitors
What type of drugs relax and expand the blood vessels?
vasodilators
What type of drug is Nitroglycerin?
an antianginal agent
What type of drug is Nifedipine?
an antianginal calcium channel blocker
What type of drug is Verapamil?
an antianginal calcium channel blocker
What type of drugs contain the stem -olol in the name?
beta-blockers
How do beta-blockers work?
they block the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine
What type of drug contains the stem -poetin in the name?
erythropoietins
What does the hormone, Erythropoietin, do?
regulates RBC production, is used in treating anemia caused by kidney failure and chemotherapy