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71 Cards in this Set

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What are sources of most antifungal antibodies?
Monomorphic molds
site of action of antifungal antibodies
Ergosterol (fungal cell membranes)
Polyene compounds
Amphoteracin B
Nystatin
Toxic, so use topically only
Imidazole compounds
Ketaconazole
Micronazole
inhibit ergosterol synthesis in cell walls; less toxic than amphotericin B
Antifungal antibodies
Polyene compounds, Imidazole compounds, Griesofulvin
Antifungal drugs
Benzoic acid
Undecylenic acid
Amphotericin B
source: Streptomyces nodosus
Polyene compound
Used for blastomycosis, histoplasmosis
Disrupts cell membrane, affinity for ergosterol
renal toxicity
Griesofulvin
source: Penicillium griesofulvin
inhibits growth of dermatophytes in epidermis
administered orally
Nystatin
source: Streptomyces nouresi
High systemic toxicity--only use topically
Polyene compound
Used for candidiasis
Ketoconazole
Imidazole compound
treat blastomycosis
Benzoic acid
local antifungal drug
fungistatic and keratolytic activity
treat dermal mycotic infections
Undecylenic acid
Local antifungal drug
fungistatic activity
treat superficial fungal infections
Bacteriocidal
Drug that kills infective bacteria; use these when host defense mechanisms are defective/impaired
Bacteriostatic
Drug that inhibits growth of bacteria but does not kill it; use this when host is immunocompetent
Drugs acting on permeability of cell membrane
Polymixins
Drugs acting on cell wall (peptidoglycan synthesis)
Bacitracin, Cephalosporins, Penicillins
Drugs acting on nucleic acids (nucleic acid synthesis)
Quinolones, Rifampin, sulfonamides, trimethoprim
Drugs acting on ribosomes (protien synthesis)
Aminoglycosides, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Lincomycin, Tetracyclines
Polymyxins
Action on permeability of cell membrane
Polymyxin B, Polymyxin D (Colistin)
source: Bacillus polymyxa
used topically
Polymyxin B
Polymyxin; action on cell membrane permeability
used topically
often in eye ointments
Polymyxin E
Polymyxin; action on cell membrane permeability
Treats systemic infections
Bacitracin
Action on cell wall (inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis)
source: Bacillus subtilis
works on gram pos bacteria
used topically
Cephalosporins
Action on cell wall (inhibition of peptidoglucan synthesis)
source: Cephalosporium species
beta-lactam antibiotics; bacteriocidal
Cephaloridine, Cepalothin
Penicillins
Action on cell wall (inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis)
source: Penicillium notatum
beta-lactam antibiotics; bacteriocidal
Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin G
Penicillin G
Penicillin (act on cell wall)
beta-lactam antibiotic; bacteriocidal
Narrow spectrum of activity against gram pos bacteria
Ampicillin
Penicillin (act on cell wall)
Beta-lactam antibiotic; bacteriocidal
Broad spectrum of activity on gram pos and gram neg bacteria
Carbenicillin
Penicillin (act on cell wall)
Beta-lactam antibiotic; bacteriocidal
Broad spectrum of activity on gram pos and gram neg bacteria
Rifampin
Action on nucleic acid (inhibits mRNA synthesis)
treats TB in humans
blocks mRNA synthesis by bacterial RNA polymerase (no affect on human RNA poly.)
Quinolones
Action on nucleic acid (inhibits dsDNA synthesis)
treats systemic bacteria infections
Ciprofloxacin, Nalidixic acid
Ciprofloxacin
Quinolones (act on nucleic acids)
inhibit ds DNA synthesis
Nalidixic acid
Quinolones (act on nucleic acids)
inhibit ds DNA synthesis
treats urinary tract infections
Sulfonamides
Analog of PABA
Sulfanilamide, sulfadizine, sulfamerazine
block synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid (needed for nucleic acid synthesis)
affects bacteria needing preformed folic acid
antibacterial drug
Trimethoprim
Dihydrofolate reductase
inhibits enzyme dihydrofolate reductase
antibacterial drug
PABA
para-aminobenzoic acid
Chloramphenicol
Act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: streptomyces venezuelae
act at 50S subunit
used against most gram neg and gram pos; can suppress bone marrow (lead to anemia)
Chloretetracycline
Act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces aureofaciens
use vs. gram pos and gram neg
act at 30S subunit
Erythromycin
act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces erthreus
act at 50S subunit
broad spectrum of bacterial infections
Kanamycin
act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces kanamycelius
act at 30S subunit
use vs. gram neg (not anaerobic)
Lincomycin
Act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces lincolensis
act at 50S subunit
use vs. aerobic bacterial infections
Neomycin
act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces lincolensis
act at 50S subunit
use against gram neg (not anaerobic)
Oxytetracycline
act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces rimosus
act at 30S subunit
use vs. gram pos and neg
Streptomycin
act to inhibit protein synthesis
source: Streptomyces grieus
use against gram neg bacteria (no anaerobic)
Clindamycin
semisynthetic derivative of lincomycin
use vs. anaerobic bacterial infections
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, Neomycin, Streptomycin
Act on 30S subunit
use vs. aerobic gram neg bacteria
Tetracyclines
Chlortetracycline, tetracyline, oxytetracycline
use vs. gram pos and gram neg
Chemicals that act on cell membrane
Alcohols, Acids, Alkalis, Detergents, Phenols
Chemicals that act on protein
Chlorine cmpds, formaldehyde gas, iodine cmpds, heavy metals, H2O2
Chemicals that act on DNA
crystal violet
Alcohol(s) used as chemical disinfectants
ethanol
acids used as chemical disinfectants
Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid; acetic, benzoic, citric, and propionic acids used as food preservatives
alkali(s) used as chemical disinfectants
sodium hydroxide (2%)
decontaminate inanimate objects
detergents
benzalkonium chloride
phenol(s) used as chemimcal disinfectants
methylphenol
hexachlorophene
Heavy metals used as chemical disinfectants
Merbromin (mercurochrome)
Thimersol (merthiolate)
silver nitrate eye drops
use with humans more than with animals
Antiseptics (definition)
Chemical disinfectants able to be used safely on mucous membranes and skin
how to determine rate of microorganism death
concentration of chemical
length of time chemical is applied
Phenol coefficient
ratio of conc. of phenol to conc. of chemical required to do same action
>1: more effective than phenol
<1: less effective than phenol
methylphenol
active ingredient in Lysol
cresol
disinfectant for inanimate objects
chlorine as a disinfectant
chlorine purifies water
hypochlorite disinfects inanimate objects
ethylene oxide gas
sterilization of heat sensitive materials
oxidizing agents as disinfectants
Chloride, Iodine, Hydrogen peroxide
radiation as a disinfectant
UC light decontaminates surfaces of biological hoods (250-260 nm)
X-rays can sterilize various types of foods
classical sequence of surgical site preparation
Hexachlorophene soap; sterile water rinse; 70% ethanol in water; tincture of iodine, sterile surgical drapes
Heat as a disinfectant
Dry Heat (glassware), Autoclaving (moist heat), pasteurization (edible fluids)
What is Amantadine used to treat?
Human Influenza A Virus (inhibits uncoating)
What is Acyclovir used to treat?
Human Herpes Simplex 1 and Simplex 2 viruses
What is Azidothymidine (AZT) used to treat?
HIV
What is DDI (Dideoxyinosine) used to treat?
some DNA viruses (Acts to inhibit DNA synthesis)
What is Marboran used to treat?
Human Variola Virus (prevents replication of poxvirus by stopping nucleocapsid assembly)
What is action of virazole?
Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides, inhibiting viruses
Drug = ribavirin
used for respiratory infections
What is action of interferons?
Heterologous group of glycoproteins
inhibits growth of animal viruses by blocking translation of viral proteins
used as chemotherapeutic agent