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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Guiding motivations of drug use in food animals
1) using drugs properly for the proper animals at the proper time
2) protecting the safety of food
3) Serving the clients interestes in operating their business
Key Issues of drug use in food animals
1) Public Perception
2) Health Issues
3) Changing Food Animal Industry
4) Changing Legal rules
5) Response of the Veterinary Profession
Health concerns for drug residue avoidance
1) allergic reactions
2) toxic reactions
3) carcinogenesis
4) antibacterial resistance?
Changing food animal industry
1) continued consolidation (hired labor, emerging diseases)
2) Changing demands of clients
3) changing distribution channels for pharmaceuticals (not only vets)
Drug Residue in Milk: surveillance efforts
1) test bulk milk tanks for beta-lactam antibiotics
2)spot-testing for other antibiotics and NSAIDS
Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act
1) established conditions for legal extra-label use of drugs in animals
Drugs prohibited in food animals
1) chloramphenicol
2) clenbuterol
3) DES
4) nitrofurans
5) sulfonamides in lactating dairy cattle
6) Fluoroquinolones
7) glycopeptides
8) dipyrone
Reasons for ineffective mastitis therapy
1) change in pathogen prevalence (less s. agalactiae, more G- (sever coliform) follow up after therapy)
2) limited spectrum of antimicrobial products
3) Historical definition of cure rate-- get milk back to normal, NOT eliminate bacteria
Neutrophils in the mammary gland
1) phagocytize fat, protein
2) lactose...not glucose
3) decreased antibodies
4) fewer lymphocytes
Problem cows
1) Repeat offenders
2) multiple quarters
3) non-responsive pathogens
Mastitis therapy protocols
1) case (who to treat)
2) target (where in the cow and how much)
3) therapeutic regimen (how do we get it there?)
3 Targets for mastitis therapy
1) Milk-- strep, coag neg staph, corynebac bovis
2) Deep tissue-- micro-abscess, fibrous tissue, staph aureus
3) The Cow-- bacteremia, coliforms
Susceptibility Breakpoint
Drug concentration (zone diameter) that is set as representing clinical efficacy-- can be misleading.
Specifics: drug, pathogen, species, disease, regimen
Traits of good systemic drugs
1) High Vd
2) cross blood: milk barrier
3) lipophilic
4) E.g. tetracyclines, macrolides, florfenicol
Concentration-dependent killing v. time-dependent killing
in concentration-dependent killing, magnitude above MIC enhances killing (e.g. aminoglycosides)
In time-dependent killing, time above MIC enhances killing ( macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, beta-lactams, lincosamides)
Coliform mastitis
1) most common cause of severe mastitis
2) most common cause of dead/culled cows