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10 Cards in this Set

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Drug Dependence:
inhibits re-uptake of Ne, DA & possibly 5-Ht.
Drug Dependence: Amphetamines
inhibits re-uptake of NE, DA, and possibly 5-H5. May also increase release of these drugs.
Drug Dependence: Nicotine
Increases release of DA, NE, 5HT, but actions are limited due to receptor desensitization.
Nicotine may also release GABA & Glutamate.
Phencyclidine = a stimulant/hallucinogen that is often mixed w/ other drugs.
Has multiple diverse actions:
-uptake blockade
-block of NMDA receptors & certain opiod receptors.
-PCP is currently considered a model for schizoprenia & other thought disorders.
-Also has amnesic properties.
Reward Pathways in Brain
Use Dopamine
VTA --> nucleus accumbens
Arousal/Alertness pathways
Use NE

LC --> Forebrain areas & spinal pathways.
Psychotic Responses
Uses DA in meso-cortical-libic system.

Possibly 5-HT and glutamate neurotransmission.
Crack Overdose;
What it causes & how to treat
1) Cardiac arrhytmias. Treat with Beta-adrenergic blocker and Alpha Blocker (Labetalol, Prazosin) or Diazepam.
(2) Respiratory Depression. May be due to local anesthetic effects on respiratory nerves. May occur after tolerance to europhric effects leads to high doses during binging. Tolerance to local anesthetic effets does NOT occur.
3) Seizures. Treat with i.v. diazepam or equivalent.
Amphetamines: How to Treat Overdose
Psychotic symptoms: treat with halloperidol or chlorpromazine

Agitation: Treat with Diazepam

Cardiac & Hypertension: Beta and/or Alpha adrenergic Antagonist.

Acidifaction of the urine with ammonium chloride enhances the rate of elimination.
DA & NE uptake inhibitor.

Shown to be effective in helping people to stop smoking.

Can be administered as a transdermal patch.

Risk to fetus from bupropion & the path is less than from smoking.