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38 Cards in this Set

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Aspirin Drug Class
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)
Anti-Platelet Aggregator
Analgesic (non-narcotic)
Antipyretic
Aspirin Route
Oral
Aspirin Dose (Adult, Pedi)
Adults-
One (325 mg) adult aspirin or 4 (81mg) baby aspirin.
*Give even if patient has taken their own ASA within the previous 24 hours
Pedi-
Not given; contact medical control
Aspirin Drug Action
1.Reduces platelet stickiness
2. Blocks pain impulses in the CNS
3. Reduces fever and infammation
Aspirin Onset
15-30 minutes
Aspirin Duration
4-6 hours
Aspirin Indications
Chest pain associated with cardiac distress
Aspirin Precautions
Any significant Bleeding (reduction of platelet efficiency)
Side Effects
1. None for prehosptital.
2. Chronic use can lead to GI Bleeding
3. When taken to relieve pyrexia for young patients w/flu like symptoms, may cause Reye's Syndrome; CDC recommends ASA be withheld in patients 19 and younger with any fever causing illness.
Aspirin Contraindications
1. Aspirin allergy
2. Aspirin-induced asthma
3. Hemorrhagic shock
Albuterol Drug Class
Sympathomimetic

Sympatho- Sympathetic Nervous System
Mimetic-mimics the action of
Albuterol Route
Inhaled via nebulizer
Can also be bagged in via ET tube
Metered dose inhaler
Albuterol Dose (Adult, Pedi)
Adults:
> Nebulized - 2.5 mg over 5-15 minutes

Pediatric:
>Same as adult
Note:
>If the patient is improving after 1st dose, 2 additional doses may be used
>If there is NO improvement after the 1st dose, combine 2nd and 3rd dose with Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)
Albuterol Drug Action
Brochodilation via Beta 2 properties
Albuterol Indications
>Bronchospasm for asthma or COPD
>Second Line Drug for allergic reactions unresponsive to Epinephrine or Benadryl; Patients in anaphylaxis need the life saving actions of EPINEPHRINE 1st.
Albuterol Precautions
Known Heart Disease

Why? Beta 2 activity also produces vasoconstriction creating a higher vessicular resistance placing strain on the heart.
Albuterol Side effects
Reslessness
Hypertension
Tachycardia-Palpitations
Albuterol Contraindications
Relative Contraindications
> Pregnancy-Administer only in life-threatening situations; can increase heart rate and blood sugar levels in the fetus.
Atrovent (Ipratropium Bromide) Drug Class
Anticholinergic

Cholinergic-related to Parasympathetic Nervous System
-comes from the word 'acetyl-CHOLINE' which is the neurotransmitter for the PNS.
Anti-against
Atrovent Route
Inhaled via nebulizer
Atrovent Dose (Adult, Pedi)
All doses are combined with 2.5 mg Albuterol!
> Adults
- 0.5 mg in 2.5 mL NS
> Pedi
- < 1 y/o 0.25 mg in 2.5 mL NS
- > 1 y/o or older - *Same as Adult*
Atrovent Action
Anticholinergic
> Bronchodilation
> Drying of secretions
Atrovent Onset
5-15 minutes
Atrovent Duration
4-6 hours
Atrovent Indications
Bronchospams from asthma or COPD that does not respond to the 1st dose of *ALBUTEROL*
Atrovent Precautions
Notify medical control prior to administration if patient has a past medical history of:
>Glaucoma
>Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
>Bladder neck obstruction
Atrovent Side Effects
Dry Mouth
Cough or worsening of syptoms
GI disturbance
Blurred vision
Atrovent Contraindications
> Sensitivity to soy products (soybeans, peanuts)
> Sensitivity to Atropine
> Bronchoconstriction due to allergic reaction-these patients need the life saving actions of Epinephrine
Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) Drug Class
Vasodilator
Nitroglycerin Route
Can be administered in spray or tablet form
Sublingual (SL)
Nitroglycerin Dose (Adult,Pedi)
Adult
> 1 spray (0.4 mg) or 1 tablet (0.4 mg) SL
> B/C patient's need to be PAIN FREE, may repeat TWICE at 5 minute intervals PRN. Can also repeat twice for pulmonary adema.
Pediatric
> Not used in the pre-hospital setting
Nitroglycerin Drug Action
> Dilation of ALL systemic veins and arteries
--> decreases peripheral vascular resistance
-->Decrease in preload and afterload
-->Decrease cardiac workload/oxygen demand
>Dilation of coronaryarteries
*Note:
relieves ANGINAL pain only; does not relieve pain of AMI
Nitroglycerin Onset
1-3 minutes
Nitroglycerin Duratino
30 minutes - 1 hour
Nitroglycerin Indications
Chest Pain or other symptoms of ischemic cardiac pain.
- Pressure
-Squeezing Pain
-Crushing Pain
-Heaviness
-Suffocation
Pulmonary Edema associated with CHF-Systemic vasodilation.
Nitroglycerin Precautions
>When used in Chest Pain:
a 12 lead must be obtained to assess for INFERIOR wall MI.
If INFERIOR wall MI is suspected,
-Ensure IV is established BEFORE Nitro administration
-Continuously monito B/P and perfusion
>Ensure patient is sitting or lying down prior to administration.
>For all patients, obtain B/P readings before and after each dose is administered.
Nitroglycerin Side Effects
hypotension
Headache
Postural hypertension/sncope
Reflex Tachycardia
Stinging or bitterness under tongue
Nitroglycerin Contraindications
Systolic B/P < 90 mmHg
Increased intracranial pressure
Viagra or Levitra w/in previous 24 hours or Cialis (48hrs)
Extreme bradycardias (HR < 50)
Extreme tachycardias (HR >100)
Head Injury or increased intracranial pressure