Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
drugs available to the public only when approved by a medical professional and dispensed by a licensed pharmacist.
prescription drugs
A class of medicinal drugs availabe to the public without the requirement of a prescription.
over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
A highly teratogenic (birth-defect-producing) drug.
The first stage of clinical testing, in which an experimental drug is administered to healthy volunteers to check on possible side effects and to determine patterns of absorption and elimination.
Phase 1 trials
The second stage of clinical testing, in which an experimental drug is given to a small population of patients having the medical condition for which the drug is considered a possible treatment.
Phase 2 trials
The third stage of clinica testing, in which an experimental drug is given to a large population of patients, through which issues of safety, effectiveness, and proper dosage levels are finalized.
Phase 3 trials
The fourth stage of clinical testing, in which possible adverse reactions to a drug, already available to the public, are monitored by physicians who have prescribed it.
Phase 4 trials
The exclusive right of a drug company to market a particular drug. The duration of a patent is twenty years.
A characteristic of two drugs in which all pharmacological and physiological effects are identical.
Any of a group of OTC analgesics (incuding aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen) that are unlike cortisone-based drugs and reduce the swelling caused by injury of disease.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
A drug developed in the nineteenth century to treat mild to moderate pain, though it was extremely irritating to the stomach.
salicylic acid
A modification of salicylic acid that makes the drug less irritating to the stomach without lessening its analgesic powers.
acetylsalicylic acid
Any analgesic drug containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
Having an effect that reduces inflammation or soreness.
having an effect that reduces body temperature and fever.
Hormone-like substances that are blocked by many OTC analgesic drugs.
A rare but highly dangerous childhood disorder that has been associated with the administration of ASA-type analgesic drugs for the treatment of certain viral infections.
Reye's syndrome
A type of OTC analgesic drug. A major brand name is Tylenol.
A type of OTC analgesic drug. Major brand names include Advil, Motrin, and Nuprin.
An analgesic drug, formerly available only by prescription (brand names: naprosyn and anaprox)It is now available as an OTC drug under the brand name Aleve.
Formerly, the only FDA-approved active ingredient in OTC appetite-suppressants, weight-loss aids as well as cold remedies. The FDA removed PPA from the market in 2000.
One of two FDA-approved active ingredcients in OTC sleep-aid product, such as Nytol and Sleepinal.
One of two FDA-approved active ingredients in OTC sleep-aid products, suc as Unisom.
doxylamine succinate
An herb-based dietary supplement considered to improve blood circulation and possibly increase mental alertness.
gingko biloba
an herb-based dietary supplement with possible applications that include an improvement in mental alertness among the elderly.
a category of depressant drugs that provide a sense of calm and sleep.
drugs that make the user feel more peaceful or tranquil; also called tranquilizers.
antianxiety drugs
a drug within a family of depressants derived from barbituric acid and used as a sedative-hypnotic and antiepileptic medication.
a long-acting barbiturate drug, usually marketed in generic form.
an intermediate-acting barbiturate drug. Brand name is amytal.
A short-acting barbiturate drug. Brand name is nembutal
A short-acting barbiturate drug. Brand name is Seconal.
A phenomenon associated with the withdrawal of barbiturate drugs in which the quantity of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increases, resulting in disturbed sleep and nightmares.
REM-sleep rebound
A depressant drug once used for the treatment of insomnia. It is highly reactive with alcohol and can severely irritate the stomach.
chloral hydrate
A nonbarbiturate depressant drug once used as a sedative. Brand name is Quaalude.
A nonbarbiturate antianxiety drug and sedative. Brand name is miltown.
A family of antianxiety drugs. Examples are diazepam (Valium), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and triazolam (Halcion).
A pschological condition dominated by excessive worry, sympathetic autonomic activity, and maladaptive behavior.
anxiety disorder
a major benzodiazepine drug for the treatment of anxiety. Brand name is librium.
A major benzodiazepine drug for the treatment of anxiety. Brand name is Valium.
A phenomenon in which the tolerance that results from the chronic use of one drug induces a tolerance effect with regard to a second drug that has not been used before.
A phenomenon in which one drug can be used to reduce the withdrawal symptoms following the dicontinuance of another drug.
a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drug, first introduced in 1993, for the treatment of insomnia. Brand name is Ambien.
A nonbenzodiazepine antianxiety drug, first introduced in 1986. Brand name is BuSpar.
A powerful CNS depressant, often abused to induce euphoria and sedation. When slipped in an alcoholic beverage without the knowledge of the drinker, GHB has been employed as a date-rape drug.
gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
a type of intervention in which the goal is to forestall the onset of drug use by an individual who has had little or no previous exposure to drugs.
primary prevention
a type of intervention in which the goal is to reduce the extent of drug use in individuals who have already had some exposure to drugs.
secondary prevention
A type of intervention in which the goal is to prevent the relapse in an individual following recovery in a drug treatment program.
tertiary prevention
A perspective on drug-abuse treatment that recognizes the biological, psychological, and social factors underlying drug-taking behavior and encourages an integrated approach, based upon these factors, in designing an individual's treatment program.
biopsychosocial model
imprisonment for a fixed length of time.
A process of change through which there is a reduced likelihood that a pattern of problematic behavior will recur.
The reduced likelihood that a person might engage in a pattern of problematic behavior in the future.
The unauthorized manufacture, distribution by sale or gift, or possession with intent to distribute any controlled substance.
drug trafficking
having on one's person any illegal or nonprescribed controlled substance for one's own use.
simple possession
Products that are considered to be used to administer, prepare, package, or store illicit drugs.
drug paraphernalia
A stage of change in which the individual may wish to change but either lacks the serious intention to undergo change in the foreseeable future or is unaware of how significant his or her problem has become.
precontemplation stage
a stage of change in which the individual is aware that a problem exists and is thinking about overcoming it but has not yet made a commitment to take action.
contemplation stage
A stage of change in which the individual seriously considers taking action to overcome a problem in the next thirty days and has unsuccessfully taken action over the past twelve months.
preparation stage
A stage of change in which the individual actually modifies his or her behavior and environment in order to overcome a problem.
Action stage
A stage of change in which the individual has become drug free for a minimum of six months and has developed new skills and strategies that reduce the probability of relapse.
maintenance stage
An approach in ATOD prevention programs that emphasizes the building of self-esteem and an improved self-image.
affective education
an approach in ATOD prevention programs that teaches positive social values and attitudes.
values clarification
techniques by which an individual can resist peer pressure to use alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs
peer-refusal skills
the inclination to resist the negative impact of risk actors in a person's life through the positive impact of protective factors.
individuals in the community who function as positive role models to children and adolescents in ATOD prevention programs
a set of considerations specific to a particular culture or community that can influence the reception and acceptance of public information.
sociocultural filters