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171 Cards in this Set

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LITERAL MEANING OF MICROBIOLOGY
STUDY OF SMALL LIFE
TRADITIONAL DEFINITION OF MICROBIOLOGY
STUDY OF WHAT IS TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN WITH THE NAKED EYE.
THE BASICS OF MICROBIOLOGY ARE ( 5)
BACTERIA, FUNGI, VIRUSES, PROTOZOANS, ALGAE
MORE ADVANCED MICROBIOLOGY STUDIES ___________
PARASITE WORMS AND PARASITE INSECTS
ARE VIRUSES LIVING?
NO, VIRUSES ARE NOT LIVING
USUALLY MICROBIOLOGY DEALS WITH THINGS WE CAN'T SEE....GIVE TWO EXAMPLES THAT DON'T MEET THAT CRITERIA
MUSHROOMS ( FUNGI) AND SEAWEED (ALGAE) CAN BE SEEN WITH OUR EYES
NAME OF THE PERSON WHO FORMED THE IDEA THAT THERE WERE MICROBES THAT CAUSED DISEASE
LUCRETIOUS
1ST PERSON TO USE A CRUDE MICROSCOPE.......POWER OF MICROSCOPE.....ITEMS THAT HE DESCRIBED,,AND 2 EXAMPLES
ANTHONY VANLEEUWENHOEK 300X BACTERIA, PROTOZOANS, PEOPLES TEETH AND FECAL MATTER
PERSON WHO CAME UP WITH THE IDEA OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
ARISTOTLE
DEFINITION OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION:
LIVING THINGS CAN ARISE FROM NON-LIVING MATTER. EX. MAGGOTS ARISING FROM MEAT.
PERSON THAT CHALLENGED ARISTOTLES IDEA OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
FRANCESCO REDI
WHAT WAS FRANCESCO REDIS HYPOTHESIS
MAGGOTS ARISE FROM FLY EGGS...NOT SPONTANEOUS GENERATION.
WHAT KIND OF EXPERIMENT DID FRANCESCO REDI CONDUCT
3 JARS COVERED WITH NOTHING, PAPER, GAUZE....FRANCESCO REDI PROVED HIS THEORY.
FRANCESCO REDIS FINDINGS WERE LATER DEFINED AS ___________
BIOGENESIS
DEFINITION OF BIOGENESIS
LIVING THINGS ARISE FROM PRE-EXISTING LIVING CELLS
WHO CAME UP WITH THE OBSERVATION OF BEEF BROTH TURNING CLOUDY
JOHN NEEDHAM
WHAT WAS JOHN NEEDHAMES HYPOTHESIS
MICROBES ARISE FROM PRE-EXISTING MICROBES IN THE FLASK AND FROM THE AIR
WHAT WAS THE CONCLUSION OF JOHN NEEDHAMS EXPERIMENT
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN BE ASSOCIATED WITH JOHN NEEDHAMS EXPERIMENT
BROTH WASN'T BOILED LONG ENOUGH (NEEDS 1 HR) FLASK WASN'T COVERED DURING COOLING PERIOD
THE PERSON WHO IMPROVED JOHN NEEDHAMS EXPERIMENT
SPALLANZANI
WHAT IMPROVEMENTS DID SPALLAZANI MAKE TO JOHN NEEDHAMS EXPERIMENT
CAPPED FLASK IMMEDIATELY BOILED 45-60 MINUTES WAITED 1-2 DAYS
WHAT WAS THE CONCLUSION OF SPALLAZANIS EXPERIMENT
BIOGENESIS,,,,NOT SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
WHY DID SOME PEOPLE REJECT SPALLAZANIS EXPERIMENT CONCLUSIONS
THEY THOUGH "NOTHING" CAN SURVIVE WITHOUT AIR.
WHO CREATED THE SWAN NECKED FLASK
LOUIS PASTEUR
WHAT IS THE CONCLUSION OF LOUIS PASTEURS SWAN NECK FLASK EXPERIMENT
BIOGENESIS
HE NOTICED PATIENTS WERE DYING OF POST SURGICAL INFECTIONS
JOSEPH LISTER
DESCRIBE JOSEPH LISTERS EXPERIMENT
HEAT WAS USED TO CLEAN SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, AND PHENOL WAS USED ON SURGICAL TABLE, IN AIR, AND ON WOUND DRESSINGS
RESULT ( CONCLUSION) OF JOSEPH LISTERS EXPERIMENT
MICROBES CAUSE INFECTIONS...INFECTIONS WERE REDUCED
ROBERT KOCH SHOWED A DIRECT LINK BETWEEN WHAT
THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, AND THE DISEASE ANTHRAX.
ROBERT KOCH STARTED LOOKING AT THE DEATHS OF WHAT ANIMALS
COWS
DEFINITION OF KOCHS POSTULATES
SET OF RULES FOR ESTABLISHING A LINK BTWN A PARTICULAR MICROBE AND A DISEASE.
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW KOCHS POSTULATES ARE BEING USED TODAY
SARS
TB, TETNOUS, MALERIA...HOW DID WE FIND OUT WHAT WAS CAUSING THEM
KOCHS POSTULATES,,,THEN YOU CAN SEARCH FOR THE CURE.
(1) THINGS THAT KOCHS POSTULATES CAN'T BE MET FOR,,AND AN EXAMPLE
MICROBE CANT BE GROWN IN LAB OR IN PURE CULTURE ( BACTERIUM THAT CAUSE SYPHILIS)
1 THING KOCHS POSTULATE CANT BE MET FOR
DISEASE NOT CAUSED BY MICROBES ( GENETIC DISEASE)
1 THING KOCHS POSTULATE CANT BE MET FOR
DISEASE THAT ONLY OCCURS IN HUMANS ( GHONORHEA)
1 THING KOCHS POSTULATE CANT BE MET FOR
DISEASES THAT ARE CAUSED BY MULTIPLE MICROBES ( DIARRHEA)
1ST PERSON TO DEVELOP MEDIA TO GROW CULTURES ON ( PETRI DISHES)
ROBERT KOCH
FIRST VACCINATIONS....SCIENTIST
EDWARD JENNER
EDWARD JENNER DEALT WITH WHAT 2 DISEASES
SMALL POX AND COW POX
WHAT WAS EDWARD JENNERS HYPOTHESIS
IF YOU GET COW POX,,,YOU CAN'T GET SMALL POX
DESCRIBE EDWARD JENNERS EXPERIMENT
TOOK SCAB SCRAPINGS FROM A MILKMAIDS COWPOX LESIONS & INNOCULATED THEM INTO AN INCISION ON YOUNG BOYS.
RESULT OF EDWARD JENNERS EXPERIMENT
BOYS DIDN'T GET SMALLPOX,,,EVEN WHEN EDWARD JENNER INNOCULATED THEM WITH SMALLPOX SCRAPINGS.
WHO STUDIED CHICKEN CHOLERA
PASTEUR AND CHAMBERLAND
WHAT WAS THE CONCLUSION OF PASTEUR AND CHAMBERLANDS STUDY
OLD CHOLERA WAS TOO WEAK TO CAUSE DISEASE, BUT ALLOWED PROTECTION AGAINST STRONG MICROBE.
WHO COINED THE TERM VACCINATION
PASTEUR
WHO WAS PASTEUR HONORING WITH THE TERM "VACCINATION"
IN HONOR OF EDWARD JENNERS WORK WITH COWPOX AND SMALLPOX.
ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS...WHO TRIED TO FIND A CURE FOR SYPHILIS
PAUL EHRLICH
WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG THAT PAUL EHRLICH DISCOVERED IN 1906
SALVARSAN SALVA=SALVATION ARSAN=ARSANIC
WHAT # FORMULATION WAS USED FOR A SHORT TIME TO TREAT SYPHILIS
606 TH FORMULA ...TOO TOXIC,,,USE WAS THEN STOPPED
WHO DISCOVERED PENICILLAN
ALEXANDER FLEMMING... IN 1928
ALEXANDER FLEMMING STUDIED STAPHYLOCOCCUS...
CULTURE BECAME CONTAMINATED BY MOLD,,,THAT MOLD INHIBITED THE GROWTH OF THE STAPHYLOCOCCUS,,THAT MOLD SECRETED PENICILLAN TO INHIBIT BACTERIA
MOST MICROBES ARE EITHIER ONE OF THESE TWO....
PROCARYOTES OR EUCARYOTES
DEFINE...PROCARYOTES
"BEFORE KERNEL" LACK A TRUE NUCLEUS (BACTERIA ONLY)
DEFINE EUCARYOTES
"TRUE NUCLEUS" TRUE NUCLEUS IS PRESENT
GIVE 4 EXAMPLES OF EUCARYOTES
PROTOZOA, FUNGI, ALGAE, HUMANS
DON'T HAVE A CELL STRUCTURE,,ARE NEITHIER A PROCARYOTE OR EUCARYOTE
VIRUSES
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE CELL SIZE OF A PROCARYOTIC CELL
0.2---2.0 MM IN DIAMETER
2.0---8.0 MM IN LENGTH
EXAMPLE OF PROCARYOTIC CELL SIZES
B CEREUS (SMALLER) VS B MEGATERIUM (LARGER)
CELL SIZE IS COMMONLY USED TO DIFFERENTIATE OR ID DIFFERENT SPECIES OF BACTERIA
NOTE
PATTERN CREATED WHEN CELLS DIVIDE
CELL ARRANGEMENT
CELL ARRANGEMENTS FOR COCCUS ( ROUND ) CELLS
SINGLE..CELLS DON'T REMAIN ATT AFTER DIV
PAIRS OF COCCUS CELLS ARE CALLED
DIPLOCOCCUS
CHAINS OF COCCUS CELLS ARE CALLED
STREPTOCOCCUS
PACKETS OF 4 COCCUS CELLS ARE CALLED
TETRAD
PACKETS OF CUBES OF 8 16 32 CELLS OF COCCUS CELLS ARE CALLED
SARCINAE
RANDOM CLUSTERS OF COCCUS CELLS ARE CALLED
STAPHLOCOCCUS
STEP LIKE BACILLUS CELLS ARE CALLED
PALISADE
COLONY CHARACHTERISTICS
MILLIONS OF CELLS VISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE,,,VISIBLE WHEN GROWN ON A SOLID PLATE MEDIUM
WHAT SEPARATES THE INTERIOR OF THE CELL FROM THE EXTERIOR
PLASMA MEMBRANE
WHAT ARE THE TWO BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER,,,PROTEINS EMBEDDED IN THE BILAYER.
THE HEAD OF THE PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER IS CALLED THE
PHOSPHATE HEAD
THE TAILS OF THE PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER ARE CALLED....
FATTY ACID TAILS...
PHOSPHATE HEADS ARE ...HYDROPHOBIC OR HYDROPHILIC
HYDROPHILIC
FATTY ACID TAILS ARE...HYDROPHOBIC OR HYDROPHILIC
HYDROPHOBIC
FATTY ACID TAILS ARE ...POLAR OR NON-POLAR
NON-POLAR
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF PROCARYOTIC CELLS
SITE OF METABOLIC REACTIONS SUCH AS PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION
THE ______ ___________ OF A PROCARYOTIC CELL ALLOWS A CELL TO ________ ITS ENVRONMENT
PLASMA MEMBRANE SENSE

TEMPERATURE, pH, LIGHT, FOOD, ETC
DEFINE PERMEABLE
ALLOWS IN AND OUT FLOW
THE PM OF A PROCARYOTIC CELL SERVES AS A __________ __________ ( TYPE OF BARRIER)
SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE BARRIER
A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE BARRIER ( PROCARYOTIC CELLS) CONTROLS ____________
MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES IN AND OUT OF THE CELL
NAME THE (3) TYPES OF MOVEMENT RELATED TO PROCARYOTIC CELLS PM
PASSIVE DIFFUSION

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
GIVE AN EXAMPLE THAT WAS USED IN THE CLASSROOM TO DEMONSTRATE PASSIVE DIFFUSION
BEAKER FILLED WITH WATER,,,BLU DYE ADDED
IN PASSIVE DIFFUSION ( MOVEMENT TYPE FOR PM IN PROCARYOTIC CELLS) CONCENTRATION GOES FROM ____ TO _____
HIGH TO LOW
IN PASSIVE DIFFUSION....IS ENERGY REQUIRED BY THE CELL
NO ENERGY IS REQUIRED BY THE CELL IN PASSIVE DIFFUSION
IN PASSIVE DIFFUSION...RATE DEPENDS ON WHAT
IN PASSIVE DIFFUSION RATE DEPENDS ON [ ] ....EX. WATER, CO2, O2
FACILITATED DIFFUSION IS MOVEMENT FROM ______________ TO ______________________
HIGH [] TO LOW [ ]
FACILITATED MOVEMENT IS ONE OF THREE WAYS THAT THE PLASMA MEMBRANE MOVES IN PROCARYOTIC CELLS
NOTE
IS ENERGY REQUIRED BY THE CELL IN FACILITATED DIFFUSION
NO ENERGY IS REQUIRED BY THE CELL IN FACILITATED DIFFUSION
IN FACILITATED DIFFUSION THE CELL REQUIRES
A PROTEIN CARRIER
IN FACILITATED DIFFUSION " RATE" DEPENDS ON
# OF CARRIERS
GIVE THE EXAMPLE USED IN THE CLASSROOM OF FACILITATED DIFFUSION
2 DOGS TRYING TO GO THROUGH 1 DOGGY DOOR
FACILITATED DIFFUSION SATURABLE OR NONSATURABLE
SATURABLE
GIVE TWO EXAMPLES OF FACILITATED DIFFUSION
SUGARS, AMINO ACIDS
DEFINE THE "CELL WALL" OF PROCARYOTIC CELLS
AN ADDITIONAL LAYER OUTSIDE OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
IN PROCARYOTIC CELLS.....WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CELL WALL
PROTECTION, AND MAINTAINS THE SHAPE OF THE CELL
WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF CELL WALL TYPES IN PROCARYOTIC CELLS
GRAM + , GRAM -
DEFINE PEPTIDOGLYCAN
PROTEIN AND SUGAR
IN PROCARYOTIC CELL WALLS GRAM+ AND GRAM - BOTH HAVE PEPTIDOGLYCAN
NOTE
THE CELL WALLS OF GRAM + ARE COMPOSED OF
A THICK LAYER OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
HOW THICK IS THE THICK LAYER OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN IN GRAM + CELL WALLS
20-80 nm
THE CELL WALLS OF GRAM - ARE COMPOSED OF
A THIN LAYER OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
HOW THICK IS THE LAYER OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN IN GRAM - CELL WALLS
1-3 nm SMALLER THAN IN GRAM + CELL WALLS
GRAM - CELL WALLS HAVE AN INNER MEMBRANE MADE OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN....WHAT IS THE INNER FACE (OF THE OUTER MEMBRANE) MADE OF
THE INNER FACE OF GRAM - CELL WALLS ARE PHOSPHOLIPIDS
THE OUTER FACE OF GRAM - CELL WALLS ARE COMPOSED OF_____________
LIPOSACCHARIDES (LPS)
LIPOSACCHARIDES MAKE THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF (GRAM POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE) LESS PERMEABLE THAN THE PM AND LESS PERMEABLE THAN GRAM (+ -) CELL WALL
GRAM - GRAM +
WHAT DOES PENICILLAN DO TO PEPTIDOGLYCAN
DEGRADES IT
IS PENICILLAN MORE EFFECTIVE AGAINST A GRAM + OR GRAM - CELL WALL
PENICILLAN IS MORE EFFECTIVE AGAINST A GRAM + CELL WALL
GRAM - CELL WALLS ARE (MORE OR LESS) PERMEABLE THAN GRAM + CELL WALLS
GRAM - CELL WALL IS LESS PERMEABLE
GLYCO=
CALYX=
SUGAR
SHELL
DEFINE GLYCOCALYX
AN ADDITIONAL LAYER OUTSIDE OF THE CELL WALL.
WHAT IS GLYCOCALYX PRIMARILY COMPOSED OF
POLYSACCHARIDES ( EX. DEXTRAN)
IS GLYCOCALYX PRESENT IN ALL PROCARYOTES
NO
LIST (3) FUNCTIONS OF GLYCOCALYX
ALLOWS CELL TO ADHERE TO SOLID SURFACES
-PROTECTS CELL FROM DRYING OUT
-PROTECTS CELL FROM BEING ATTACKED BY CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
NAME THE TWO TYPES OF GLYCOCAYX
CAPSULE, SLIME LAYER
DEFINE CAPSULE
A CAPSULE IS A FORM OF GLYCOCALYX THAT IS THICK WELL ORGANIZED AND FIRMLY ATTATCHED TO THE CELL WALL (SOME PROCARYOTES) CAPSULES ARE USUALLY COMPRISED OF POLYSACCHARIDES
DEFINE SLIME LAYER
A SLIME LAYER IS A FORM OF GLYCOCALYX THAT IS THIN, NOT WELL ORGANIZED & LOOSELY ATTATCHED TO THE CELL WALL
GIVEE AN EXAMPLE OF A SLIME LAYER
STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS (TEETH)
DEFINE PILI AND FIMBRIAE
RELATIVELY SHORT HAIR LIKE EXTENSIONS FROM THE CELL ( PROCARYOTES)
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PILI AND FIMBRIAE IN PROCARYOTE CELLS
THEY ALLOW PROCARYOTE CELLS TO ADHERE TO SOLID SURFACES
WHAT IS LONGER (PILI OR FIMBRAE) AND GIVE SPECIFICS
PILI ARE LONGER THAN FIMBRIAE,,,AND IT'S IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT PILI ARE LESS NUMEROUS THAN FIMBRIAE
ON A PROCARYOTE CELL, HOW MANY PILI CAN WE USUALLY EXPECT TO SEE ON THE SURFACE OF THE CELL
USUALL THERE ARE 1-10 ON THE SURFACE
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF PILI
E-COLI ATTATCHING TO THE LARGE INTESTINE
ARE FIMBRIAE LONGER OR SHORTER THAN PILI
SHORTER THAN PILI
HOW MANY FIMBRIAE CAN WE USUALLY EXPECT TO SEE ON THE SURFACE OF THE CELL
USUALLY > THAN 100
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF FIMBRIAE
THE BACTERIUM THAT CAUSES GHONORHEA USES FIMBRIAE TO ATT TO THE UROGENITAL TRACT.
EXPLAIN THE EXPERIMENT THAT WAS USED WITH THE MUTANT E-COLI
A MUTANT E-COLI WAS CREATED WITH NO PILI.
---30 STUDENTS DRANK FRUIT PUNCH W/ MUTANT E-COLI...NO DIARRHEA
----30 STUDENTS DRANK FRUIT PUNCH W/ E-COLI W/ PILI....POSITIVE FOR DIARRHEA
DEFINE FLAGELLUM
LONG HAIR LIKE EXTENSION FROM THE CELL SURFACE. (PROCARYOTE CELLS)
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAGELLUM IN PROCARYOTE CELLS
MOTILITY
HOW DOES THE FLAGELLUM MOVE
IN PROCARYOTE CELLS
IT ROTATES
IN PROCARYOTE CELLS DOES THE FLAGELLA USE UNDULATION
NO
IN PROCARYOTE CELLS,,,,LIST THE STRUCTURE ( 3 ) PARTS OF THE FLAGELLUM
BASIL BODY
HOOK
FILAMENT
DEFINE THE FUNCTION OF THE BASIL BODY IN THE FLAGELLUM OF PRO. CELLS
ANCHORS THE FLAGELLUM TO THE CELL WALL OF PROC. CELLS AND TO THE PM
DEFINE THE "HOOK" OF THE FLAGELLUM PRO C.
INTERMEDIATE PART, BTWN THE BASIL BODY AND FILAMENT
LONGEST PORTION OF THE FLAGELLUM, USUALLY AS LONG AS THE CELL ITSELF
DEFINE "FILAMENT" OF THE FLAGELLUM PRO C.
LIST THE (5) FLAGELLAR ARRANGEMENTS OF PROC C.
NONE
MONOTRICHOUS
AMPHITRICHOUS
LOPOTRICHOUS
PERITRICHOUS
MONO=ONE
TRICHO=HAIR
NOTE
MONOTRICHOUS =
ONE SINGLE FLAGELLUM
AMPHITRICHOUS = __________________ P.C.
ONE OR MORE FLAGELLA ON BOTH ENDS OF THE CELL
LOPHOTRICHOUS = __________
P.C.
MANY FLAGELLA ORIGINATING FROM ONE END
PERITRICHOUS = __________
P.C.
MANY FLAGELLA ALL OVER THE SURFACE OF THE CELL
HOW DO FLAGELLA ROTATE IN P.C.
FLAGELLA ROTATE TO CREATE A "TUMBLE AND RUN" PATTERN OF MOVEMENT
WITHOUT A STIMULUS...TIME SPENT TUMBLING AND RUNNING OF FLAGELLA IN P.C IS ABOUT EQUAL...DIRECTION IS RANDOM
NOTE
IF FLAGELLA OF A P.C HAVE AN ATTRACTANT.....EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENS AS FAR AS THERE MOVEMENT
MORE TIME SPENT RUNNING, LESS TUMBLING ,,,MOVEMENT IS TOWARDS THE ATTRACTANT
IF FLAGELLA OF A P.C. HAVE A REPELLANT....EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENS AS FAR AS THERE MOVEMENT
EQUAL TIME TUMBLING AND RUNNING....MOVEMENT IS AWAY FROM THE FLAGELLA
DEFINE ENDOSPORES P.C.
A MINI, DORMANT VERSION OF THE CELL
WHAT IS THE FUNC. OF ENDOSPORES OF P.C.
TO SURVIVE HARSH ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS SUCH AS CHANGE IN TEMP, PH, LACK OF FOOD SUPPLY, TOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
ONCE ENDOSPORES HAVE FORMED,,,,WHAT DO THEY DO... P.C.
THEY "WAIT" FOR CONDITIONS TO IMPROVE AND THEN GERMINATE BACK INTO A NORMAL CELL
CAN ALL SPECIES FORM ENDOSPORES P.C.
NO
ARE ENDOSPORES MORE COMMON IN GRAM + OR GRAM - CELL WALLS
MORE COMMON IN GRAM + SPORES CAN FORM IN DIFFERENT LOCATIONS W/IN THE CELL
IS CYTOPLASM LOCATED ON THE INTERIOR OR EXTERIOR OF P.C
CYTOPLASM IS ON THE EXTERIOR OF P.C.
DEFINE CYTOPLASM P.C
FLUID INSIDE OF THE CELL.
WHAT IS THE COMPOSITION OF CYTOPLASM IN P.C.
CYTOPLASM IS COMPOSED MAINLY OF WATER ALSO A MIXTURE OF PROTEINS SUGARS, SALTS, AND VITAMINS
WHAT IS A NUCLEOID COMPOSED OF IN P.C.
NUCLEOIDS IN P.C ARE COMPOSED OF DNA. USUALLY A SINGLE CIRCULAR MOLECULE OF DNA
HOW MANY MOLECULES OF DNA DOES A NUCLEOID CONTAIN
UP TO 3,500 GENES
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF NUCLEOIDS IN P.C.
NUCLEOIDS CONTAIN THE "BLUEPRINTS" OR INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CELL
WHAT SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION IS CONTAINED IN THE NUCLEOID OF P.C
INSTRUCTION FOR THE CREATION OF PROTEINS.
DEFINE THE STRUCTURE OF "PLASMIDS" IN P.C.
PLASMIDS ARE SMALLER THAN NUCLEOIDS, THEY'RE CIRCULAR FRAGMENTS OF DNA
HOW MANY GENES DO WE USUALLY FIND IN PLASMIDS
USUALLY THE NUMBER IS SMALL BTWN 5-100 GENES
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PLASMIDS IN P.C.
PLASMIDS PROVIDE INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE "GOODIES" ....EXTRA THINGS THAT AREN'T REQUIRED FOR USUAL FUNCTION EXAMPLE TOXINS OR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
DEFINE THE STRUCTURE OF RIBOSOMES IN P.C.
COMPOSED OF PROTEIN AND RIBOSOMAL DNA
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF RIBOSOMES IN P.C.
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS USING INSTRUCTIONS FROM DNA
LIST THE TWO LOCATIONS OF RIBOSOMES IN P.C.
FREE
ATTATCHED TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
DEFINE "FREE RIBOSOMES" P.C
FLOATING IN CYTOPLASM
WHAT ARE "FREE RIBOSOMES" USED FOR IN P.C.
FREE RIBOSOMES ARE USED TO CREATE PROTEINS FOR USE INSIDE OF THE CELL
RIBOSOMES THAT ARE "ATTATCHED TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE"ARE USED ___________
TO CREATE PROTEINS THAT WILL BE SECRETED FROM THE CELL OR BECOME PART OF THE PM OR THE CELL WALL
DEFINE THE STRUCTURE OF " MOLECULAR CHAPERONES" P.C.
PROTEINS THAT ARE IN CYTOPLASM OR THE PM
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF "MOLECULAR CHAPERONES" IN P.C.
HELP FOLD THE NEWLY CREATED PROTEINS INTO THEIR "MATURE" 3-D STRUCTURE, AND HELPS MOVE PROTEINS ACROSS THE PM
WHAT HELPS TO MOVE PROTEINS ACROSS THE PM IN P.C.
MOLECULAR CHAPERONES
DEFINE THE STRUCTURE OF "GRANULES OR INCLUSION BODIES"
HIGHLY COMPACTED AGGREGATES SUCH AS GLYCOGEN (POLYSACCHARIDE) LIPIDS, IRON, SULFER, PHOSPHATES,
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF GRANULES OR INCLUSION BODIES IN P.C.
STORAGE