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211 Cards in this Set

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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
a networking technology that parcels information into 8-byte cells, enabling data to be transmitted between computers from different vendors at any speed
part of a network handling the major traffic and providing the primary path for traffic flowing to or from other networks
high-speed transmission technology
Bus networks
network topology linking a number of computers by a single circuit with all messages broadcast to the entire network
Cable modems
modem deigned to operate over cable TV lines to provide high-speed access to the Internet or corporate intranets
Campus are network (CAN)
an interconnected set of local area networks in a limited geographical area such as a college or corporate campus
live, interactive conversations over a public network
Coaxial cable
a transmission medium consisting of thickly insulated copper wire
the ability of computers and computer-based devices to communicate with each other and share information in a meaningful way without human intervention
Dense wavelength division and multiplexing (DWDM)
technology for boosting transmission capacity of optical fiber by using many different wavelengths to carry separate streams of data over the same fiber strand at the same time
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
a group of technologies providing high-capacity transmission over existing copper telephone lines
Domain name
English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric Internet Protocol (IP) address for each computer connected to the Internet
Domain Name System (DNS)
a hierarchical system of servers maintaining a database enabling the conversion of domain names to their numeric IP addresses
the computer to computer exchange of messages
Fiber-optic cable
a fast, light and durable transmission medium consisting of thin strands of clear glass fiber bound into cables
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
specification for retrieving and transferring files from a remote computer
hardware and software placed between an organization’s internal network and an external network to prevent outsiders from invading private networks
Frame relay
a shared network service technology that packages data into bundles for transmission but does not use error-correction routines
software that provides functions and services that support the collaborative activities of work groups
measure of frequency of electrical impulses per second, with 1 Hertz equivalent to 1 cycle per second
Home page
a World Wide Web text and graphical screen display that welcomes the user and explains the organization that has established the page
very simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
the communications standard used to transfer pages on the Internet
Information appliance
device that has been customized to perform well a few specialized computing tasks with minimal user effort
Instant messaging
Chat service that enables participants to create their own private chat channels so that a person can be alerted whenever someone on his or her private list is online to initiate a chat session with that particular individual
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
international standard for transmitting voice, video, image, and data to support a wide range of services over the public telephone lines
Internet Protocol (IP) address
four-part numeric address indicating a unique computer location on the Internet
Internet service provider (ISP)
a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers
Internet telephony
technology that use Internet Protocol packet-switched connections for voice service
International network of networks that is a collection of hundred of thousands of private and public networks
the linking of separate networks, each of which retains its own identity, into an interconnected network
online discussion groups using e-mail broadcast from mailing list servers
Local are network (LAN)
a telecommunications network that requires its own dedicated channels and that encompasses a limited distance, usually one building or several buildings in close proximity
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
network that spans a metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs
a device for translating a computer’s digital signals into analog form for transmission over ordinary telephone lines, or for translating analog signals back into digital form for reception by a computer
transmission of data to a selected group of recipients
capability of a single communications channel to carry data transmissions from multiple sources simultaneously
Network interface card (NIC)
expansion card inserted into a computer to enable it to connect to a network
Network operating system (NOS)
special software that routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources
Open systems Interconnect (OSI)
less widely used network connectivity model developed by the International Organization for Standardization for linking different types of computers and networks
Optical networks
high-speed networking technologies for transmitting data in the form of light impulses
Packet switching
technology that breaks messages into small bundles of data and routes them in the most economical way through any available communications channel
network architecture that gives equal power to all computers on the network
a set of rules and procedures that govern transmission between the components in a network
Push technology
method of obtaining relevant information on networks by having a computer broadcast information directly to the user based on prespecified interests
Ring networks
a network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another
specialized communications processor that forwards packets of data from one network to another network
Search engines
a tool for locating specific sites or information on the Internet
Search-based advertising
payment to a search service to display a sponsored link to a company’s Web site as a way of advertising that company
Semantic Web
collaborative effort led by the World Wide Web Consortium to make Web searching efficient by reducing the amount of human involvement in searching for and processing Web information
Shopping bots
software with varying levels of built-in intelligence to help electronic commerce shoppers locate and evaluate products or services they might wish to purchase
Star network
a network topology in which all computers and other devices are connected to a central host computer
device to connect network components that has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified destination
T lines
high speed data lines leased from communications providers, such as T-1 lines (with a transmission capacity of 1.544 megabits per second)
group collaboration software that is customized for teamwork
network tool that enables someone to log on to one computer system while doing work on another
the way in which the components of a network are connected
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
dominant model for achieving connectivity among different networks
Twisted wire
a transmission medium consisting of pairs of twisted copper wires
Unified messaging
system combining voice messages, e-mail, and fax so that all messages can all be obtained from a single system
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
the address of a specific resource on the Internet
Voice over IP (VOIP)
facilities for managing the delivery of voice information using the Internet Protocol (IP)
the person in charge of an organization’s Web site
Wide are networks (WANs)
telecommunications network that spans a large geographical distance
2.5G networks
wireless digital cellular networks that provide higher-speed data transmission rates ranging from 50 to 144 kilobits per second (Kbps) using the existing cellular network infrastructure
3G networks
cellular networks based on packet-switched technology with speeds ranging from 144 kilobits per second (Kbps) for mobile users to over 2 megabits per second (Mbps) for stationary users enabling users to transmit video, graphics, and other rich media, in addition to voice
wireless local area network (LAN) standard that can transmit up to 11 megabits per second (Mbps) in the unlicensed 2.4-GHz band and that has an effective distance of 30 to 50 meters
Access point
box in a wireless local area network (LAN) consisting of a radio receiver/transmitter and antennas that link to a wired network, router, or hub
standard for wireless personal area networks that can transmit up to 722 kilobits per second within a 10-meter area
Cellular telephones (cell phones)
a device that transmits voice or data, using radio waves to communicate with radio antennas placed within adjacent geographic areas called cells
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
major cellular transmission standard in the U.S. that transmits over several frequencies, occupies the entire spectrum, and randomly assigns users to a range of frequencies over time
E-mail handhelds
handheld devices for wireless data transmission that includes a small display screen and a keypad for typing short e-mail messages
technology used in Verizon’s cellular network service for providing anytime, anywhere broadband wireless Internet access for PCs and other devices at average speeds of 300 to 500 kilobits per second
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
2.5G service that transports data over Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) wireless networks and improves wireless Internet access
Global Positioning System (GPS)
worldwide satellite navigational system
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
major cellular transmission standard outside the U.S. with strong international roaming capability that operates primarily in the 900-megahertz (MHz) and 1.8-gigahertz (GHz) frequency bands using Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) in which each user is allocated a portion of time on the frequency
a specific geographic location in which an access point provides public Wi-Fi network service
standard developed by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo mobile phone network for enabling cell phones to receive Web-based content and services
web browser software with a small file size that can work with low-memory constraints, tiny screens of handheld wireless devices, and low bandwidth of wireless networks
a high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point transmission in which high-frequency radio signals are transmitted through the atmosphere from on terrestrial transmission station to another
Mobile computing
wireless computing that enables Internet-enabled cell phones, person digital assistant (PDAs), and other wireless computing devices to access digital information from the Internet and other sources from any location
Mobile wallets (m-wallets)
software that stores m-commerce shoppers’ personal information and credit card numbers to expedite the purchase process
Nomadic computing
wireless computing where users move form wireless hot spot to wireless hot spot to gain network or Internet access
Paging systems
a wireless transmission technology in which the pager beeps when the user receives a message
Personal area networks (PANs)
computer network used for communication among digital devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants, or PDAs) that are close to another
Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
small, pen-based, handheld computers with built-in wireless telecommunications capable of entirely digital communications transmission
Pervasive computing
ubiquitous use of computers in every facet of everyday life, including cars, homes, office buildings, tools, and factories, making computers increasingly embedded in people’s natural movements and interactions with their environments
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
technology using tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and its location to transmit short-distance radio signal to special RFID readers that then pass the data on to a computer for processing
the transmission of data using orbiting satellites that serve as relay stations for transmitting microwave signals over very long distances
Short message service (SMS)
text message services used by digital cell phone systems to send and receive short alphanumeric messages less than 160 characters in length
Smart phones
wireless phone with voice, text, and Internet capabilities
wireless services that combine wireless communication with tracking capabilities from the Global Positioning System (GPS)
Voice portals
capability for accepting voice commands for accessing Web content, e-mail, and other electronic applications from a cell phone or standard telephone and for translating responses to user requests for information into speech for the customer
standards for Wireless Fidelity and refers to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 family of wireless networking standards
popular term for IEEE Standard 802.16 for wireless networking over a range of up to 31 miles with a data transfer rate of up to 75 megabits per second (Mpbs)
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
system of protocols and technologies that enables cell phones and other wireless devices with tiny displays, low-bandwidth connections, and minimal memory to access Web-based information services
Wireless Markup Language (WML)
markup language for wireless Web sites
Wireless NICs
an add-in card (network interface card) that has a built-in radio and antenna to enable wireless transmission
Wireless portals
portals with content and services optimized for mobile deices to steer users to the information they are most likely to need
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs)
networks of interconnected wireless devices with built-in processing, storage, and radio-frequency sensors and antennas that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces
protocol that handles application-level communication between devices in a wireless sensor network
Accumulated balance digital payment systems
systems enabling users to make micropayments and purchases on the Web, accumulating a debit balance on their credit card or telephone bill
Banner ad
a graphic display on a Web page used for advertising
popular term for Weblog, designating an informal yet structured Web site where individuals can publish stories, opinions, and links to other Web sites of interest
Business model
an abstraction of what an enterprise is and how the enterprise delivers a product or service, showing how the enterprise creates wealth
Business-to-business (B2B) electronic commerce
electronic sales of goods and services among businesses
Business-to-consumer (B2C) electronic commerce
electronic retailing of products and services directly to individual consumers
Call center
an organizational department responsible for handling customer service issues by telephone and other channels
Channel conflict
competition between two or more different distribution chains used to sell the products or services of the same company
business model where the Web site is an extension of a traditional bricks-and-mortar business
Clickstream tracking
tracking data about customer activities at Web sites and storing them in a log
Collaborative commerce
the use of digital technologies to enable multiple organizations to design, develop, build, and manage products collaboratively through product life cycles
Collaborative filtering
tracking users’ movements on a Web site, comparing the information gleaned about a user’s behavior against data about other customers with similar interests to predict what the user would like to see next
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) electronic commerce
consumers selling goods and services electronically to other consumers
Digital cash
currency that is represented in electronic form that moves outside the normal network of money
Digital checking
systems that extend the functionality of existing checking accounts so they can be used for online shopping payments
Digital credit card payment systems
secure service for credit card payments on the Internet that protects information transmitted among users, merchant sites, and processing banks
Digital wallet
software that stores credit card, electronic cash, owner identification, and address information and provides this data automatically during electronic commerce purchase transactions
the removal of organizations or business process layer responsible for certain intermediary steps in a value chain
Dynamic pricing
pricing of items based on real-time interactions between buyers and sellers that determine what an item is worth at any particular moment
Electronic billing presentment and payment system
a system used for paying routine monthly bills that enables users to view their bills electronically and pay them through electronic funds transfers from banks or credit card accounts
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
the direct computer-to-computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transactions, such as orders, shipment instructions, or payments
Electronic payment systems
the use of digital technologies, such as credit cards, smart cards, and Internet-based payment systems, to pay for products and services electronically
third-party Net marketplace that is primarily transaction oriented and that connects many buyers and suppliers for spot purchasing
Information asymmetry
situation in which the relative bargaining power of two parties in a transaction is determined by one party in the transaction possessing more information essential to the transaction than the other party
payment for a very small sum of money, often less than $10
Mobile commerce (m-commerce)
the use of wireless devices, such as cell phones or handheld digital information appliances, to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to-business e-commerce transactions over the Internet
Net marketplaces
a single digital marketplace based on Internet technology that links many buyers to many sellers
Peer-to-peer payment systems
electronic payment system for people who want to send money to vendors or individuals who are not set up to accept credit card payments
Pop-up ads
ad that opens automatically and does not disappear until the user clicks it
Private exchange
another term for a private industrial network
Private industrial networks
Web-enabled networks linking systems of multiple firms in an industry or the coordination of transorganizational business processes
sourcing goods and materials, negotiating with suppliers, paying for goods, and making delivery arrangements
business models based purely on the Internet
measurement of how many people a business can connect with and how many products it can offer those people
the shifting of the intermediary role in a value chain to a new source
measurement of the depth and detail of information that a business can supply to the customer as well as information the business collects about the customer
Search costs
the time and money spent locating a suitable product and determining the best price for that product
Smart card
a credit-card-sized plastic card that stores digital information and that can be used for electronic payments in place of cash
Social networking sites
online communities for expanding users’ business or social contacts by making connections through their mutual business or personal connections
Stored value payments systems
systems enabling consumers to make instant online payments to merchants and other individuals based on value stored in a digital account
a business that aggregates content or applications from multiple sources, packages them for distribution, and resells them to third-party Web sites
Web personalization
the tailoring of Web content directly to a specific user
Acceptable use policy (AUP)
defines acceptable uses of the firm’s information resources and computing equipment, including desktop and laptop computers, wireless devices, telephones, and the Internet, and specifies consequences for noncompliance
Access control
policies and procedures a company uses to prevent improper access to systems by unauthorized insiders and outsiders
Administrative controls
formalized standards, rules, procedures, and disciplines to ensure that the organization’s controls are properly executed and enforced
Antivirus software
software designed to detect, and often eliminate, computer viruses from an information system
Application controls
specific controls unique to each computerized application
Application proxy filtering
firewall screening technology that uses a proxy server to inspect and transmit data packets flowing into and out of the organization so that all the organization’s internal applications communicate with the outside using a proxy application
the ability of each party in a transaction to ascertain the identity of the other party
Authorization policies
policies that determine differing levels of access to information assets for different levels of users in an organization
Authorization management systems
systems for allowing each user access only to those portions of a system or the Web that person is permitted to enter, based on information established by a set of access rules
Biometric authentication
technology for authenticating system users that compares a person’s unique characteristics, such as fingerprints, face, or retinal image, against a stored set profile of these characteristics
program code defects or errors
Business continuity planning
planning that focuses on how the company can restore business operations after a disaster strikes
Chief security officer (CSO)
person who manages a formal security function for the organization and who is responsible for enforcing the firm’s security policy
linking two computers together so that the second computer can act as a backup to the primary computer or speed up processing
Computer forensics
the scientific collection, examination, authentication, preservation, and analysis of data held on or retrieved from computer storage media in such a way that the information can be used as evidence in a court of law
Computer virus
rogue software program that attaches itself to other software programs or data files in order to be executed, often causing hardware and software malfunctions
all of the methods, policies, and procedures that ensure protection of the organization’s assets, accuracy and reliability of its records, and operational adherence to management standards
hacker with criminal intent
the intentional disruption, defacement, or even destruction of a Web site or corporate information system
the process of discovering and eliminating the errors and defects—bugs—in program code
Denial of service (DoS) attack
flooding a network server or Web server with false communications or requests for services in order to crash the network
Digital certificates
an attachment to an electronic message to verify the identity of the sender and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply
Digital signature
a digital code that can be attached to an electronically transmitted message to uniquely identify its contents and the sender
Disaster recovery planning
planning for the restoration of computing and communication services after they have been disrupted
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack
uses numerous computers to inundate and overwhelm the network from numerous launch points
period of time in which an information system is not operational
Electronic records management (ERM)
software dealing with employee issues that are closely related to customer relationship management (CRM), such as setting objectives, employee performance management, performance-based compensation, and employee training
the coding and scrambling of messages to prevent their being read or accessed without authorization
Fault-tolerant computer systems
systems that contain extra hardware, software, and power supply components that can back up a system and keep it running to prevent system failure
General controls
overall controls that establish a framework for controlling the design, security, and use of computer programs throughout an organization
Gram-Leach-Bliley Act
requires financial institutions to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer data
a person who gains unauthorized access to a computer network for profit, criminal mischief, or personal pleasure
High-availability computing
tools and technologies, including backup hardware resources, that enable a system to recover quickly form a crash
the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (page 353)
Identity theft
theft of key pieces of personal information, such as credit card or Social Security numbers, to obtain merchandise and services in the name of the victim or to obtain false credentials
Input controls
the procedures to check data for accuracy and completeness when they enter the system
Intrusion detection systems
tools to monitor the most vulnerable points in a network to detect and deter unauthorized users
ISO 17799
an international set of standard for security and control for protection of information resources
Load balancing
distribution of large numbers of requests for access among multiple servers so that no single device is overwhelmed
malicious software programs
Managed security service providers (MSSPs)
company that provides security management services for subscribing clients
Message integrity
the ability to ascertain whether a transmitted message has been copied or altered
duplicating all the processes and transactions of a server on a backup server to prevent any interruption in service if the primary server fails
MIS audit
identifies all the controls that govern individual information systems and assesses their effectiveness
Network Address Translation (NAT)
provides another layer of protection when static packet filtering and stateful inspection are employed
Online transaction processing
transaction processing mode in which transactions entered online are immediately processed by the computer
Output controls
measures that ensure that the results of computer processing are accurate, complete, and properly distributed
Packet filtering
examines selected fields in the headers of data packets flowing back and forth between the trusted network and the Internet, examining individual packets in isolation
setting up fake Web sites or sending e-mail messages that look like those of legitimate businesses to ask users for confidential data
Processing controls
the routines for establishing that data are complete and accurate during updating
Public key infrastructure (PKI)
system for creating public and private keys using a certificate authority (CA) and digital certificates for authentication
Recovery-oriented computing
computer systems designed to recover rapidly when mishaps occur
Risk assessment
determining the potential frequency of the occurrence of a problem and the potential damage if the problem were to occur
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
designed to protect investors after the financial scandals at Enron, WorldCom, and other public companies
Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP)
protocol used for encrypting data flowing over the Internet, but it is limited to Web documents
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
protocol used for secure information transfer over the Internet
policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration, theft, or physical damages to information systems
Security policy
consists of statements ranking information risks, identifying acceptable security goals, and identifying the mechanisms for achieving these goals
a type of eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over a network
Social engineering
tricking people into revealing their passwords by pretending to be legitimate users or members of a company in need of information
misrepresent themselves by using fake e-mail addresses or masquerading as someone else
Stateful inspection
provides additional security by determining whether packets are part of an ongoing dialogue between a sender and a receiver
a physical device similar to an identification card that is designed to prove the identity of a single user
Transport Layer Security (TSL)
protocols used for secure information transfer over the Internet
Trojan horse
a software program that appears legitimate but contains a second hidden function that may cause damage
a review of a specification or design document by a small group of people that has been carefully selected based on the skills needed for the particular objectives being tested
War driving
eavesdroppers drive by buildings or park outside and try to intercept wireless network traffic
independent software programs that propagate themselves to disrupt the operation of computer networks or destroy data and other programs