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24 Cards in this Set

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Oral Route dosage forms
Solid dosage forms:
tablets
capsules
powders

Liquid dosage forms:
solutions
syprups
elixirs
emulsions
suspensions

NO: suppository, ointment
Sublingual route dosage forms
tablets
troches or lozenges
Intraocular route dosage forms
solutions
ointments
occusert, Pilocarpine
Occusert
Specialized Dosage form.

Occusert can stay in the eye for almost a week. It is used for the treatment of interocular pressure.

You lower the eyelid and insert occusert into the cavity that is behind the lower eyelid and then forget about it for a week. After a week it has some titanium ring so you can locate it and take it out.
Inraaural Route dosage forms
(ear)

solutions
suspensions
emulsions
ointments
powders

NO: solution, tablet, suppository
Intranasal Route dosage forms
solutions
inhalations, insulin
ointments
Nektar

Aerx & Aradigm
Insluin. Nektar is taking insulin through inhalation.

Aerx & aradigm also try to deliver an exact amount of insulin through lungs.
Exubera
The product that got approveld as insulin through inhalation.
Epicutaneous/Transdermal Route Dosage Forms
Semisolid dosage forms (ointments, creams, pastes)

Liquid dosage forms (lotions, solutions)

Solid dosage forms (powders: diaper rash, athlete foot)
Intrarespiratory Dosage forms
Aerosols, Gases, Anesthetics

*administer through the nose or inhale by the mouth --> goes to lungs
Rectal route dosage forms
solutions, ointments, suppositories

NO: tablets, emulsions, sponge
If you insert a suppository in the rectum, which veins do you want it to get absorbed to so no liver metabolism occurs?
It gets absorbed into the middle hemmorhoidal vein and inferior hemorrhoidal vein, this goes to common iliac vein. No liver metabolism. Good!

If it gets too high, then it gets absorbed by the superior hemorrhoidal vein and goes to the liver. Bad!
Vaginal route dosage forms
solutions, emulsions, ointments, tablets, suppositories, inserts, sponge
Urethral Route dosage forms
Solutions
Suppositories

NO: ointments
Are drugs better absorbed in an ionisized or unionized state?
If it exists in unionized state, then it gets absorbed better.
Nitroglycerine is administered in what route?
Sublingual administration. Nitroglycerine gets absorbed under the tongue and it can bypass the liver metabolism.
Striant is a drug administered in what oral route?
Buccal administration. Tablet goes in cheek or gum line. It gets hard and release a small amount of testosterone. Take it once a day. As it absorbs water, it becomes like a pillow sitting on your cheek.
What are some limitations of the oral route?
- variable absorption
- absorption is limited
- liver metabolism (first pass effect)
- some patients are unable to swallow
- stability of drug in GI tract
- effect of food, griseofelvin
Griseofelvin
If you administer this drug after a fatty meal, it gets absorbed much better.
What is the fastest way to get the drug into the circulation? Second fastest?
Directily into the blood through intravenous. Going to the lung is the second fastest way.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of rectal administration?
Rectal administration has the potential to bypass liver metabolism effect. So most of the time, suppositories are used for a laxative effect, a soothing effect. Somebody suffering from hemorrhoids. It is also for people suffering from nausea. And the disadvantage is that it has irregular absorption. It is also not convenient for the administrator or the patient.
Parental Routes
Durgs are administered through the routes other than the GI tract. Includes mostly injection administrotions: Intravenous, IV, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intratrachial.
Topical Administration sites
skin, eye, nasal cavity, oral cavity
How do you select the route of administration?
Therapeutics Considerations (Based upon the patient condition and dosage forms)

Biopharmaceutics considerations: Rate of absorption (You may want to use sublingual rather than oral because it is much faster, has a rapid onset), extent of absorption.