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65 Cards in this Set

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Why is the enthalpy of a freezing process negative when the enthalpy of fusion is positive?
Since the enthalpy of fusion is for a melting process, we use the negative since it is the reverse.
A ________ process is one that proceeds on its own without any outside assistance or intervention
spontaneous
Any ______ process is irreversible, even if we return the system to the original condition, the surroundings will have changed.
spontaneous.
the total entropy of the universe __________ in any spontaneous process.
increases.
Increase in temperature, volune, or number of moving particles usually coincides with an _________ in entropy
increase
The entropy of a solid is ________ than that of a liquid
less
We expect the entropy of the system in increase for the processes in which:
1. Gases are formed from either solids or liquids. 2. Liquids or solutions are formed from solids. 3. the number of molecules or moles increase.
The more complex a molecule, the ________ the molar entropy of a substance
greater.
If the free energy (delta G) of a process is positive, then the process is ______
spontaneous.
What is meant by the term oxidation?
the loss of electrons
On which side of an oxidation half-reaction do the electrons appear?
right side. (products)
the energy released in a spontaneous redox reaction can be used to perform electrical work through a
voltaic cell
In a cell, the electrode at which oxidation occurs is the
anode (high potential energy)
In a cell, the electrode at which reduction occurs is the
cathode (low potential energy)
Anions migrate toward the ________ and cations migrate toward the ________
anode; cathode
The _________ flow from the anode to the cathode via external circuit to be measured by a voltmeter
electrons
Since the standard reduction potentials are an __________, they do not change depending on the quantity present nor do they change direction.
intensive property
The more positive the calue of E*red, the __________ the driving force for reduction.
greater
Substances have an __________ relationship with their strengths as an oxidizing agent and reducing agent.
indirect
The ____________ is a measure of spontaneity of a process that occurs at a constant temperature and pressure
change in free energy (Delta G)
When batteries are connected in series, as in most flashlights, the total emf is the __________
sum of individual emfs
What is a common example of a voltaic cell? and the most common of those primary (answer to 1st QU)?
batteries! alkaline
what type of battery is used in automobiles?
lead-acid
What are the problems with fuel cells?
1. dificulty to compress/maintain H2 gas.
2. expensive.
Are fuel cells batteries?
no, they are not self-containing. They use convention fuels by the way such as H2 and CH4 and CH3OH (methanol).
Iron coated with a thin layer of zinc uses the principles of electrochemistry to protect the iron from corrosion.
galvanized iron
the metal that is oxidized while protecting the cathode
sacrificial anode
underground pipelines are protected against corrosion by making the pipeline the _______ of a voltaic cell
cathode, hence a cathodic protection.
Nonspontaneous processes that are driven by an outside source of electrical energy is called ________ and take place in ________.
electrolysis reactions, electrolytic cells.
the potential difference between anode and cathode
emf, referred to as cell potential in a particular cell.
this occurs when the presence of water and oxygen are accelerated by electrolytes such as road salt to perform an undesirable redox reaction
corrosion
The five kinds or radioactive decay
emission of:
alpha particles, beta particles, positron, electron capture, and gamma radiation. (alpha, beta, and gamma are top 3)
a nuclear reaction in which Helium-4 particles are spontaneously emitted
alpha radiation
radiation consisting of streams of __________ emit high-speed electrons via an unstable nucleus.
beta particles.
this radiation:
1. consists of high-energy photons
2. doesn't change the atomic number nor mass number
3. accompanies other radioactive emission b/c it represents the energy lost when the remaining necleons reorganize into more stable structures
gamma
a particle that has the same mass as an electron but an opposite charge. it increases the neurons and decreases protons.
positron
gaining an electron from the electron cloud by the nucleus. it increases the neurons and decreases protons.
electron capture
as the atomic number increases, the neutron to proton ratio of the stable nuclei ________
increase.
nuclei above the belt of stabilty (high neutron-to-proton) undergo _________ to decrease the number of neutrons and increase protons
beta emission
Heavy nuclei undergo _______ to decrease the neutrons and protons by 2.
alpha emission
_______ is a first order kinetic process that has a characteristic ________, time required for half of any given quantity of a substance to react
radioactive decay, half-life
What is dating?
I should probably find that out. I think using half-life calculations to determine how old it is.
exothermic process of splitting a heavy nuclei
fission
exothermic process of a union of light nuclei
fusion
nuclear fusion reguires _______ b/c nuclei must have large kinetic energies to overcome their mutual repulsion, therefore are called _______
high temperatures, thermonuclear.
this process generates energy in nuclear power plants
fission.
sites of reactivity in an organic compound
functional group
simplest type of organic cmpds, only hydrogen and carbon.
hydrocarbons
4 major kinds of hydrocarbons
alkanes--saturated (b/c they contain the largest possible number of H per C)
alkenes--unsaturated
aklynes--unsaturated
aromatic hydrocarbons--unsaturated.
molecules that posses nonsuperimposable mirror images (enantiomers/stereoisomers). Compounds containing carbon atoms with 4 different attached groups. The right/left shoe example.
chiral
________ have the same molecular formula but different bonding arrangements. Therefore, different physical and chemical properties
structural isomers
alkanes that are formed in a ring or circle
cycloalkanes
the _________ of alkanes is due to the strength and lack of polarity of their C-C and C-H bonds
low chemical reactivity
Alkenes _________ rotate freely about a double bond
cannot
Review orbitals and shape of hydrocarbons in your head and don't forget the bonds!
wow, that was fun.
Same molecular formula and same groups bonded to one another, but differ in spatial arrangement
geometric isomers
means on opposite side in organic cmpds
trans
means on same side in organic cmpds
cis
These highly reactive hydrocarbons are important intermediates in many industrial processes
alkynes
These hydrocarbons are much more stable than others due to their symmetrical structure and high degree of saturation
aromatic hydrocarbons
aromatic hydrocarbons undergo _____________ easily where one atom of a molecule is removed and replaced by another
substitution reactions
the building blocks of proteins
amino acids
bond between amino groups
peptide bonds
polymer formed by linking many amino acids by peptide bonds
polypeptide
molecules with large nonpolar areas soluble in nonpolar solvents
lipids