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65 Cards in this Set

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Where does the spinal cord begin?
Foramen magnum
Where does the spinal cord end?
Level of L2 vertebrae
Where does the spinal cord reside?
It resides in the vertebral canal
What does Dura Mater mean?
Tough mother
What layer is the Dura Mater?
Outer layer of meninges
The Arachnoid membrane is what layer?
The middle layer of meniges
What does the Arachnoid membrane look like?
Fragile "film" like structure whose name indicates that it looks like a spiders web
What does Pia Mater mean?
tender mother
What layer is the Pia Mater?
The inner layer of meninges that intimately covers the entire surface of the spinal cord
At the inferior end of the spinal cord what does the pia mater become?
The Filum terminale which attaches to S2
What does the Pia Mater extend laterally to become?
Denticulate ligaments
What region of the spinal cord are the denticulate ligaments housed?
C1-T10
Why is it necessary that the Pia mater anchors the spinal cord to the dura mater?
To prevent excessive movement thus avoid injuries
The Dorsal and Ventral nerves roots merge to become what?
A spinal nerve
What is the enlarged area of the spinal nerve that houses the sensory nerve cells?
The dorsal root ganglion DRG
What does Cauda Equina mean?
Horses tail
What is the termination of the spinal cord?
Conus Medullaris
What does the cauda equina consist of?
Nerve roots which are associated primarily with the sacral and coccygeal segments of the spinal cord. Eventually these nerve roots will form their respective spinal nerves which will emerge at their appropriate vertebral levels
What is the subarachnoid space?
It is the space present between the pia mater and the arachnoid space.
What does the subarachnoid space contain?
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
How far does the subarachnoid space extend to?
Extends to S2 vertebrae in the adult
Where is the spinal cord located?
In the vertebral canal
How long is it?
In the adult it extends from the foramen magnum and goes to L2 vertebrae. In a small child it extends to L3
In a 3 month fetus it extends to the coccyx therefore the spinal canal grows much more quickly than the spinal cord
How long is it in adults?
18 inches or 45 cm
What are the two enlargements?
Cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement
What do the two enlargements provide?
The cervical enlargement provides the origin for nerves to the upper extremity and the Lumbar enlargement provides origin for nerves to lower extremity
Name the two types of nerve rootlets
Dorsal (posterior) rootlets
Ventral (anterior) rootlets
Nerve rootlets converge to form what?
Dorsal and ventral spinal nerves
Spinal nerve rootlets converge to form what?
Spinal nerves
Cauda equina
Is a collection of nerve roots streaming inferiorly below the conus medullaris
The Arachnoid mater contains how many layers of tissue?
2
The outer layer of the arachnoid mater is what?
Smooth and is in physical contact with the dura mater
The inner layer of the arachnoid mater is like what?
gives rise to fibers that pass to the pia mater, thereby traversing the subarachnoid space.
Extends inferiorly to the level of S2 vertebrae
What horn of the spinal cord is larger?
Ventral horn because there are many more efferent (motor) nerves in the enlarged area
What is in the epidural space?
Nerves, blood vessels, arteries and fat
The dura mater and arachnoid mater extend to where?
S2
Where does the subarachnoid space extend from?
The cranial cavity and goes to the level of S2 vertebrae
It is continueous with the cranial subarachnoid space
The Dura Mater is continuous with what?
The cranial dura mater
In pathological situations the Dura Mater can be seperated from the arachnoid membrane to make what?
The subdural space
What is the subdural space?
A pathological condition
Why is the subdural space called a "potential space?"
Since the dura mater is normally in contact with the arachnoid membrane no space is present; however, in pathological situations these two membranes can be seperated by fluid (blood) or a tumor located between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane
The epidural space extends from where to where?
Foramen magnum to Sacral canal
Where is the epidural space located?
Between spinal dura mater and vertebral canal
The epidural space is an excellent location for what?
Regional anesthesia such as an epidural
When is an epidural shot usually given?
Labor and delivery
How many spinal nerves are there?
31 pairs
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal
What is a dermatome?
an area of skin innervated by one pair of spinal nerves
What is the anterior spinal artery formed from?
the union of two anterior spinal branches of the two vertebral arteries. It descends to the conus medullaris
The posterior spinal arteries are branches of what?
Vertebral arteries
Who is smaller? The posterior or anterior spinal arteries?
The posterior and they are connected across the midline
Segmental spinal arteries enter the vertebral canal via what?
The intervertebral foramina
Cervical branches of the segmental spinal arteries originate from where?
vertebral arteries,
thyrocervical trunk
costocervical trunck
Thoracic branches come from posterior intercostal arteries
Where do the lumbar branches come from?
Lumbar arteries
What do the segmental arteries supply?
vertebrae, intervertebral discs, contents of the epidural space and dura mater
Artery of Adamkiewicz is what?
The greater anterior medullary artery which reinforces circulation to the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. It is a unilateral artery at the lower thoracic or upper portion of the spinal cord on the left side
What does the spinal cord drain to?
a venous plexus (network) on the surface of the spinal cord, located in the subarachnoid space
what does the surface venous plexus connect to?
internal vertebral plexus located in the epidural space
What does the internal venous plexus drain into?
Drains via intervertebral veins to the external vertebral plexus, which surrounds the vertebral column
Why can blood flow in any direction as influenced by gravity in vertebral venous plexuses?
They have no functional valves
What are Batson's veins?
include both the external and internal vertebral venous plexuses, which connect the cranial cavity with venous plexuses in the pelvic cavity.
Since vertebral plexuses have no functional valves what can happen?
Metastic cells originating in the pelvic region can travel to the cranial cavity where secondary malignant tumors can develop
The motor branch of the Dorsal primary ramus goes to what?
The 3 true back muscles
Motor branches of the ventral primary ramus goes to where?
The rest of the body
What is a ganglion?
A cluster of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
The general somatic effernet neurons all go to what?
Skeletal muscles!