Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Canine oral melanomas:
- epithelioid
- fusiform
- mixed
- clear cells
AND: some are amelanotic
This article: on the rare melanomas with osteocartilaginous differentiation (1.5% of canine oral melanomas). Similar clinical course to other oral melanomas.
Vet Pathol 44:676-682 (2007)
Canine oral melanomas:
Immunohistochemical phenotype?
Most melanomas:
- vimentin +
- S100 +
- melan A + (more specific)
Vet Pathol 44:676-682 (2007)
Canine gastrointestinal stromal tumors versus leiomyosarcomas:
1. cells of origin?
2. (IHC) phenotypes?
3. site predilections?
1. GIST: interstitial cell of Cajal ("gut pacemaker"). GILMS: smooth muscle cell.
2. GIST: c-kit+, vimentin+, desmin-, S-100-. GILMS: c-kit-, SMA+, vimentin+, S-100-, desmin +/- (3/10).
3. GISTs: cecum, large intestine. GILMSs: stomach, small intestine.
JAVMA 230:9, 2007
Canine intestinal tumors of hematopoietic origin?
- which tumor is most common?
- resembles what other tumor and how?
- IHC features?
- T-cell lymphoma (small intestine, 7/11 infiltrated in epithelium)
- mast cell tumor: infiltration of eosinophils, cell structure
- CD3+, CD79-, c-kit 1 out of 11 + (mast cell marker).
Vet Pathol 43:339-344 (2006)
Dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease symptoms: what are the most prevalent diagnoses on full-thickness biopsies?
59% intestinal lymphangiectasia and mucosal edema of unknown etiology
16% eosinophilic colitis (+/- gastritis, enteritis)
8% lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or enterocolitis
8% intestinal T-cell lymphoma
Vet Pathol 43:1000-1004 (2006)
Dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease symptoms: what is the most prevalent site in the GI tract of the following diagnoses:
1- lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis
2- eosinophilic enteritis/colitis
3- lymphoma
4- lymphangiectasia
1- duodenum, jejunum > ileum > colon; usually not in submucosa
2- colon > colon+SI; 3/10 transmural
3- SI >> stomach, colon; CD3+; transmural, may have patchy distribution, surrounded by inflammatory nonneoplastic lymphoid infiltrates.
4- SI, mostly transmural
Vet Pathol 43:1000-1004 (2006)
Outbreak of pantropic highly pathogenic variant Canine Coronavirus:
Virus type?
Which types of coronavirus in dogs are known?
- hemorrhagic enteritis
- serosanguineous fluid abdomen
- lungs red areas consolidation
- liver yellow brown congested + hemorrhages
- splenomegaly + hemorrhages
- renal hemorrhagic cortical infarcts
- lymph node hemorrhages
* highly pathogenic variant of canine coronavirus type II
Known in dogs: CCov type I, type II (Group 1) and CRCoV (resp tract, Group 2).
EID 12(3):492-494 (2006)
Canine hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhotic liver:
differences between the two diseases in expression levels of:
- P-glycoprotein?
- alpha-fetoprotein?
- CD31?
What are these substances?
- P-gp HCC > cirrhosis
(ATP-dependent drug efflux pump, reducing intracellular drug toxicity)
- AFP HCC > cirrhosis
(oncofetal antigen, normally in liver and yolk sac but not in adult tissue)
- CD31 in HCC portal and in sinusoids near portal areas; in cirrhosis only portal
(endothelial marker)
Vet Pathol 44:600-606 (2007)
Aflatoxicosis in dogs:
Major toxin?
Nonhepatic gross lesions?
Hepatic subacute lesions?
Hepatic chronic lesions?
Aflatoxin B1.
Nonhepatic gross:
- hydroperitoneum
- hydropericardium
- hydrothorax
- pulmonary congestion
- pulmonary edema
- lymph node edema
- anasarca
- subcutaneous edema
- (less commonly) glomerulopathy
Subacute hepatic lesions:
- Gross: enlarged pale yellow.
- extensive bile ductule hyperplasia
- intermingled with fibrosis
- indistinct lobulation
- fatty degeneration hepatocytes
- bridging fibrosis
- extensive fibroplasia
- severe bile ductular proliferation
- regenerative hepatocellular nodules
JVDI 19:168-175 (2007)
Canine congenital portosystemic shunt:
Hepatic lesions?
Changes in expression of alpha-SMA and desmin?
- hypoplasia portal veins
- arteriolar and ductular proliferation
- lymphangiectasis
- mild to moderate fibrosis
- fatty cysts
- mild hepatocellular damage with atrophy and steatosis.
REGARDLESS of location of shunt.
Perisinusoidal stellate cells: raised expression of alpha-SMA and desmin (cellular proliferation, and transformation to a myofibroblast-like cell). (Perisinusoidal increase in ECM). Normal stellate cells: desmin+, alpha-SMA-.
JCP (2006)
Canine hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma:
IHC characteristics for endocrine markers?
E.M. characteristics?
NSE 8/10 +
synaptophysin 5/10 +
chromogranin-A 3/10 +
(panel of all three detected 100 % of tumors)
E.M.: intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules.
Vet Pathol 42:140-146 (2005)
Canine pancreatic exocrine nodular hyperplasia:
Four differences with adenomas?
In nodular hyperplasia:
1. multiplicity
2. smaller size
3. lack of capsule
4. normal differentiation
Vet Pathol 42:510-513 (2005)
Chronic hepatitis associated with canine leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum):
3 patterns in liver lesions?
What hepatocytic changes are common to all 3 forms?
1. unchanged microarchitecture, macrophages in sinusoids and amastigotes
2. portal (pyo)granulomatous infiltration
3. portal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with occasional breaching of limiting plate and extension into parenchyma, plus mild portal fibrosis.
All three patterns: hepatocyte vacuolation and hemosiderin accumulation. Amastigotes in macrophages.
JCP 132(2-3):145-152 (2005)
Avian influenza (H5N1) in dogs experimental: binding to which cells of respiratory tract?
Moderate binding to nasal mucosa and tracheal epithelium; strong binding to bronchial epithelium.
EID 13(8):1219-1221 (2007)
Which influenza virus in dogs closely resembled that in horses?
IHC pattern?
- widespread pulmonary and pleural hemorrhage
- intestinal hemorrhage
- bronchopneumonia (4/5 dogs)
- erosive and hyperplastic tracheitis and bronchitis (and lesser bronchiolitis) with necrosis or hyperplasia of submucosal gland epithelium
- severe hemorrhagic interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia
- neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages
- severe alveolar and interstitial hemorrhage
- alveolar neutrophils and macrophages
- scattered vasculitis + thrombi
IHC: H3 hemagglutinin in:
- tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells
- submucosal gland cells
- rarely in macrophages
Science vol 309 30 sep 2005
ACVP Boston 2005
EID 11(12)1974-6 (2005)
Interstitial lung disease in West Highland Terriers:
Expansion of interstitial space of alveolar septa by ECM (mixtures of type I and mainly type III collagens).
NO increase in myofibroblasts, elastin, or MMP.
E.M.: large aggregates of periodic collagen filaments underlying alveolar capillaries surrounded by thick bands of amorphous to fine fibrillar matrix.
Vet Pathol 42:35-41 (2005)
Canine mitral valve endocardiosis with complete AV block:
- reduction of conduction fibres
- fibrous or fibro-fatty replacement
- degenerative and fibrotic lesions in conductive system
JCP 136:120-126 (2007)
Cardiac neoplasms in dogs and cats:
- More often in which of these species?
- What percentage of canine malignant cardiac tumors is metastatic from another site?
- Where in the heart are metastastic tumors most frequent in dogs and cats?
- Dog
- 36 %
- more frequent: left ventricle free wall and septum; less frequent: right ventricle free wall and right atrium.
JCP 136:18-26 (2007)
Canine vascular tumors:
A) Mitogenic activity (measured in Ki-67 IHC+ %)is related to expression of which of the following:
- flk-1;
- flt-1;
- bFGF;
- flg-1?
B) VEGF expression in hemangiosarcoma versus hemangioma?
Only related to flk-1 expression ('active' receptor for VEGF).
b) VEGF higher in hemangiosarcoma than in hemangioma.
Vet Pathol 43:971-980 (2006)
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy:
Which histo types? Describe them.
1. Attenuated wavy fiber type.
- atrophy (<6 um diamter versus 10-20 um)
- wavy
- intercellular edema
- subendocardial fibrosis
2. Fatty infiltration-degenerative type.
- myocytolysis
- myofiber degeneration
- vacuolization
- atrophy
- fibrosis
- fatty infiltration replacing myofibers
* autosomal dominant inheritance in Irish wolfhound, Dobermann, Newfoundland dog
* autosomal recessive in Portugese water dog
* X-linked (dystrophin) in German shorthaired pointer
* nutritional (taurine, carnithine), metabolic, immunologic, infectious, cardiotoxins.
Vet Pathol 42:1-8 (2005)
Canine renal pathology associated with grape or raisin ingestion:
Histo kidney?
- renal tubular degeneration + necrosis (mostly prox tubule)
- intact tubular basement membrane
- golden-brown intracellular pigment in lumen and epithelium
- mineralization
JVDI 17(3):223-31 (2005)
Indicators of malignancy of canine adrenocortial tumors?
Histo adenoma vs carcinoma?
Proliferation index different?
- hematopoiesis
- fibrin thrombi\
- cytoplasmic vacuolation
- size >2cm
- peripheral fibrosis
- capsular invasion
- trabecular growth pattern
- hemorrhage
- necrosis
- single-cell necrosis
*higher Ki-67 proliferation index; reliable threshold value adenoma vs carcinoma: 2.4%
Vet Pathol 41:490-497 (2004)
Expression of VEGF and its receptors in canine lymphoma:
VEGF expression?
VEGFR expression?
VEGF+ 60% of lymphomas; in neoplastic cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and plasma cells; also in macrophages in germinal centres of normal lnn.
VEGFR-1+ 54% of lymphomas; in neoplastic cells, macrophages, plasma cells, reticulum cells, and vascular endothelial cells; also in macrophages in germinal centres of normal lnn.
VEGFR-2+ 7% of lymphomas; in neoplastic and endothelial cells.
VEGF expression is highly variable!
JCP 137,30-40 (2007)
High grade canine non-hodgkin's T cell lymphoma:
Role of inactivation of p16?
Rb phosphorylation states in high grade T and B cell lymphomas?
Difference in mechanism behind this in high grade B versus T cell lymphoma?
p16 (=INK4a) inhibits CDK4,6. Loss of p16 > Rb hyperphosphorylation mediated by CDK4 (6).
Rb hyperphosphorylation in 100% of T, 94 % of B.
In T: gene defect in p16/Rb pathway;
In B: c-Myc amplification > CDK4 overexpression > Rb hyperphosphorylation.
Vet Pathol 44:467-478 (2007)
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA:
In which species/breeds?
Which organ mainly affected?
Lesions in other organs?
- Dogs (Wirehaired dachshund, Huntaway), mice.
- cerebellum
- storage cytosomes in neurons (many stained for mainly GM2 ganglioside), PAS+, LFB+
- degeneration + loss Purkinje cells
- spheroids cerebellar WM
- most generalized: foamy macrophages (as satellites to neurons, free in neuropil, perivascular, in meninges)
E.M.: intraneuronal heterogeneous storage material: membrane-bound vesicles with moderately dense granular material, sometimes with straight multilaminar arrays ("zebra bodies").
Liver: severe hepatocyte vacuolation
Thyroid: severe follicular cell vacuolation
Var. tissues: fine vacuolation of fibrocytes.
Vet Pathol 44:569-578 (2007)
Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis of unknown origin in cats and dogs:
Which viruses were found in dog and cat CNS?
Porcine herpesvirus 1
Canine PI virus
JCP 136,96-110 (2007)
Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis of dogs and cats:
Most common parasite to cause infection in the CNS in dogs?
And in cats?
1. Toxoplasma gondii
2. Neospora caninum
3. Cuterebra spp.
1. Cuterebra spp.
2. Toxoplasma gondii.
JCP 136, 96-110 (2007)
Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis caused by parvovirus:
Histo CNS in dogs?
In cats?
- lymphohistiocytic meningitis and/or leucoencephalitis
- vacuolation in the white matter of cerebrum and cerebellum
- mild lymphohistiocytic inflammation of the meninges and cerebellum, without vacuolation
JCP 136, 96-110 (2007)
Canine meningioma:
Which types exist?
IHC characteristics?
More common in brain or spinal cord?
Metastasis: rare or frequent? To where?
Types: meningothelial, fibrous (fibroblastic), transitional (mixed), psammomatous, angiomatous, papillary, granular cell, myxoid, anaplastic (malignant); also optic nerve meningioma.
vimentin +
S100 + (except 1/2 angioblastic meningioma)
NSE highly variable
CK 5/30 +
GFAP - except 2/2 fibroblastic meningiomas.
More common in brain than spinal cord.
Metastasis rare; lung.
JCP135(4):200-7 (2006)
In canine encephalitides, what is Mx protein?
Particularly strong IHC + in which disease? Pattern?
Also in nonviral? Idiopathic?
Mx protein: group of interferon-induced GTPases.
IHC strongly + in distemper: astrocytes, macrophages, microglia, neurons (incl Purkinje cells + granular layer neurons).
Yes, also in nonviral and idiopathic.
But not in normal brain (or some of the fungal cases).
Vet Pathol 43:981-987 (2006)
What are typical features of cytology of perivascular wall tumors?
- moderate to high cellularity
- cohesion of spindle cells
- presence of capillaries
- multinucleation
Vet Pathol 44:607-620 (2007)
Mitotic index in canine cutanous mast cell tumors:
MI correlates with tumor grade?
MI relates to metastasis?
High AgNOR correlates with poor prognosis?
Survival time longer for lower (<5 per 10 HPFs) MI?
MI relates to tumor recurrence?
PCNA higher in recurrent tumors?
All yes except MI does NOT relate to tumor recurrence.
Vet Pathol 44:335-341 (2007)
What is the relevance of PCNA, Ki67 and AgNOR when diagnosing a tumor?
PCNA: auxillary subunit of DNA polymerase delta, expressed during S-phase
Ki67: expressed during all phases but not in noncycling cells
AgNor: nucleolar regions involved in RNA transcription associated with cycle rate (1/generation time).
Vet Pathol 44:298-308 (2007)
-Which proliferation markers are associated with significantly decreased survival in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors?
- In these tumors, aberrant KIT protein localization or internal tandem duplication c-KIT mutations are associated with what? Where is KIT normally located?
- Ki67 and AgNOR. NOT PCNA.

- Associated with increased cellular proliferation. KIT IHC: normally membranous. In highly proliferating tumor often cytoplasmic.
Vet Pathol 44:298-308 (2007)
Canine subcutaneous mast cell tumor:
Which of these were significantly associated with lower survival?
AgNOR score
none was significant! as opposed to cutaneous MCTs: see Webster et al Vet Pathol 44:298-308 (2007)!
JCP 136,231-239 (2007)
Which canine mast cell tumors have better prognosis: subcutaneous or dermal?
JCP 136,231-239 (2007)
Canine Leishmaniosis:
1- Significant difference in inflammatory changes bewteen asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs?
2- Percentage of CD14+ monocytes in peripheral blood correlated between chronic dermal inflammation?
3- Changes in collagen type I and III as clinical signs increased?
1- yes
2- yes, positive correlation
3- type I decreased, type III increased
JCP 135,100-107 (2006)
Epithelioid variant of hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma in dog, horse and cow:
Key histo features?
IHC features?
IHC related to mitotic rate and nuclear atypia?
IHC caveat?
Histo:plump epithelioid cells, occasional vacuoles with rarely an erythrocyte.
IHC: vWF+, CD31+, cytokeratin-
IHC: vWF staining reduced as nuclear atypia and mitotic rate increased.
Caveat: potential positivity of epithelioid hemangiosarcomas for cytokeratin! Endothelia of lower vertebrates normally coexpress keratin and vimentin.
Vet Pathol 44:15-24 (2007)
Canine melanocytic neoplasia:
Significant negative determinants of patient survival?
What diagnostic feature gives the most accurate prediction of overal behaviour?
1. metastasis
2. mitotic index
3. nuclear atypia
4. tumor score
5. increasing size/volume
6. deep inflammation
7. intralesional necrosis.
8. for tumors of skin: age
9. for tumors of feet and lips: age and junction activity.
Accurate prediction: nuclear atypia (and for feet and lips also mitotic index). NOT cell type.
Vet Pathol 43:136-149 (2007)
Footpad epidermis of dogs infected with distemper virus:
What is different regarding NF-kappaB p65 in CDV-containing footpads versus footpads with no CDV?
NF-kappaB p65: more keratinocytes contain p65 in the cytoplasm (compared to footpads with no CDV) and fewer with p65 in the nucleus; decreased translocation to the nucleus.
p65 is a transcription factor component of NF-kappaB
JCP 132(1):82-9 (2005)
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors, grade I, II and III?
significant differences in:
- mean nuclear area?
- mean nuclear perimeter?
- mean nuclear form factor?
Nuclear area and perimeter significantly higher in grade III than in I or II.
Form: not significantly different.
JCP 133(2-3):209-11 (2005)
Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in canine hemangiosarcomas, histiocytic sarcoma, and mast cell tumor grade II?
All negative.
Vet Pathol 42:350-353 (2005)
c-kit in canine mastocytoma?
proto-oncogene. neoplastic tissues: mutations in c-kit.
JVDI 17(4):385-8 (2005)
Mdm2 and p53 in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the canine circumanal gland?
Mdm2 protein, nuclear, IHC: 64% of hyperplasias, 71% of adenomas, 18% of adenocarcinomas.
p53 protein, nuclear, IHC: 0% of hyperplasias, 8% of adenomas(!), 0% of adenocarcinomas.
Mdm2 overexpression is an early event in tumorigenesis.
Murine double minute-2 gene: binds to p53 protein, and both proteins regulate eachother (feedback loop).
JCP 132(1):27-32 (2005)
Surgically amputated canine digits:
Of the tumors, % malignant?
Of the tumors, top 5 diagnoses?
Which limbs most commonly have neoplasms?
Squamous cell carcinoma of digit: metastatic potential?
78 % malignant
Top 5:
1. squamous cell carcinoma
2. melanoma
3. soft tissue sarcoma
4. mast cell tumor
5. osteosarcoma
More often front limbs.
SCC digit: greater metastatic potential than SCC occurring elsewhere.
Vet Pathol 44:355-361 (2007)
Canine osteosarcoma, tumor grading:
- Relevance to metastasis?
- Relevance of age?
- Appendicular tumors versus axial? Distal versus proximal?
- Minimally productive subtype versus other types?
- Cranial versus elsewhere?
- Rib versus elsewhere?
- Prognostic merit of pleomorphy amongst osteosarcomas?
- Which parameter varied widely between tumor locations?
- Tumor grade, necrosis and mitotic index (MI) correlates to metastasis.
- < 4 years: higher grade, score and MI.
- Appendicular: higher MI; distal higher grade than proximal.
- Minimally productive: higher grade.
- Cranial: lower grade, lower MI.
- Rib: more necrosis.
- Pleomorphy: no prognostic merit, as most were highly pleomorphic.
- Wide variation in MI between tumor locations.
JCP 136,65-73 (2007)
Alkaline phosphatase staining to differentiate canine osteosarcoma from other vimentin-positive tumors:
Sensitivity? Specificity?
Sensitivity 100 % (if ALP - then it's not an OSA)
Specificity 89 % (Also + in reactive bone)
Vet Pathol 42:161-165 (2005)
Experimental Lyme disease in the dog:
- lymphadeopathy in area of tick attachment
- NO dermal annular rash!
- effusive fibrinosuppurative and/or nonsuppurative inflammation of synovial membranes, joint capsules, and associated tendon sheaths.
- plasma cells predominated over T cells.
- polyarticular.
- in areas of tick attachment: hyperkeratosis and supp/nonsupp dermatitis
- lymphadenopathy: follicular and parafollicular hyperplasia
- 14/62 dogs: lymphoplasmacytic periarteritis and perineuritis.
JCP 133(1):1-13 (2005)
Canine ovarian epithelial and granulosa cell tumors:
Which of the two are more malignant and metastatic?
Granulosa cell tumors:
- cytokeratin 7 - (useful)
- inhibin-alpha + (useful)
- vimentin variable
- cytokeratin AE1/AE3 6/8 +

Ovarian epithelial cell tumors:
- cytokeratin 7 + (useful)
- inhibin-alpha - (useful)
- vimentin variable
- cytokeratin AE1/AE3 all +

Ovarian epithelial tumors are more malignant and metastatic.
JVDI 19:431-435 (2007)
Canine female genital tract tumors with smooth muscle differentiation:
IHC calponin?
IHC estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha)?
IHC progesterone receptor (PR)?
Leiomyomas 89.3 % +
Other tumors majority + (except negative control tumors; cuteneous fibroma, hepatoid gland adenoma).

Leiomyomas 56.3 % +

Leiomyomas 84.4 % +
JCP 136,197-201 (2007)
Immunolabelling in epithelial cells of the canine prostate; comparing hyperplastic, inflamed and neoplastic prostates to normal prostates:
IHC androgen receptor?
IHC estrogen receptor alpha?
IHC estrogen receptor beta?
IHC progesterone receptor?
Compared to normal:
- AR goes down in inflamed and neoplastic (not in hyperplastic)
- ER goes down in hyperplastic, inflamed and neoplastic (alpha more so than beta)
- PR goes up in hyperplastic, inflamed and neoplastic.
JCP 136,1-8 (2007)
Are genital lesions and shedding of Leishmania sp. in the semen of dogs associated with visceral leishmaniasis?
Higher frequency of inflammation in epididymes, glans penis, and prepuce.
Leishmania DNA (PCR) + in semen of 36 % of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
Vet Pathol 42:650-658 (2005)
Diagnosis of parvoviral infection in dogs and cats:
Of the animals with suspect or positive fluorescent antibody staining in the small intestine, which % had positive FA and IHC in the tongue?
Other lesions in tongue?
86 %
(tongue is an excellent complementary sample for parvoviral testing in dogs and cats, especially in cases where autolysis has occurred).
Previous studies: intranuclear viral inclusions and pseudocytoplasmic inclusions within the epithelium of the tongue of dogs infected with CPV-2.
JVDI 19:409-413 (2007)
Immunocytological detection of lymph node metastases in dogs with malignant epithelial tumors:
- anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 on imprint smears versus conventional stain?
- on fine needle aspirates?
- value of KL1 immunolabelling?
- AE1/AE3: broad spectrum. Significant increase in sensitivity, in particular on micrometastases.
- FNA: more efficient detection of metastases than by conventional staining.
- KL1 antibody: not suitable for dogs. (low sensitivity)
JCP 137,1-9 (2007)
Oral and ocular canine melanocytic tumors:
Expression difference of monocarboxylate transporter 1?
Function of MCT1?
Correlation between tumor grade and MCT expression?
Correlation between tumor pattern and MCT expression?
MCT1 higher in oral than in ocular.
Transports monocarboxylates (pyruvate, lactate) which are produced in glycolysis (hypoxic environment) out of the cell.
No correlation to grade or pattern.
Vet Pathol 44:449-457 (2007)
Tenascin IHC in melanocytic tumors of dogs:
1- melanomas vs melanocytomas?
2- melanomas: toe vs oral?
3- relation to histological malignancy?
4- tenascin IHC + where in tissue?
5- relation to vWF IHC labelling?
1. higher in melanomas
2. higher in toe
3. no
4. connective tissue surrounding the tumour cell nests and in narrow stromal strands inside the tumor. NOT in lymphocytic infiltrates.
5. no
JCP 136,29-56 (2007)
Prognostic significance of intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) in canine soft-tissue sarcomas:
Statistical association IMD (marked by FVIII-RA) to:
1- histologic grade?
2- histologic features (necrosis, mitosis)?
3- cellular proliferation (based on AgNOR)?
4- metastatic propensity?
5- survival?
1 yes
2 yes
3 yes
4 yes
5 NO
Vet Pathol 43:622 (2006)
Expression of transglutaminase II (TGase II) in tumors of dogs and cats:
- in normal mammary tissue?
- in benign hyperplasia?
- in canine mammary carcinomas?
- in feline mammary carcinomas?
- related to classification of mammary carcinoma?
- IHC+ where in tissue?
- effect of TGase II on cell survival?
- NOT in normal mammary tissue
- NOT in benign hyperplasia
- canine carcinomas: 44 % +
- feline carcinomas: 83 % +
- NOT related to classification (except prominent expression in two anaplastic canine mammary carcinomas)
- feline: more stromal; canine: more cellular (cytoplasm)
- TGaseII: pro-survival
JCP,202 (2006)
Canine mammary tumors:
Surface membrane progesterone expression: benign versus malignant?
Malignant: lower surface membrane progesterone expression (and higher cellular proliferation; less dependent on progesterone in malignant tumors).
JCP 137,122-129 (2007)
Expression of Cox-1 and Cox-2 in canine mammary tumors:
Cox-1 IHC?
Cox-2 IHC?
Which tumor types strongest Cox-2 +?
Cox-1 and -2 where in tissue?
Cox-1 + in all samples (constitutively expressed by many cell types) including benign and malignant tumors (no significant difference).
Cox-2 higher in malignant than in benign. 2/4 normal glands focally +.
Strongest Cox-2 + in carcinosarcomas and tubulopapillary and squamous cell carcinomas (histological types which are classically associated with high malignancy).
Cox-1 in epithelial, myoepithelial, chondroblast and stromal cells.
Cox-2 more intense in luminal epithelial cells, also in complex areas, chondroblasts.
JCP 136,177-185 (2007)
Immunohistochemical phenotype in mammary gland regarding cytokeratins, p63 and alphaSMA in
- luminal epithelium
- basal epithelium
- basal cells (=myoepithelium) ?
- luminal: CK7,8,18,19.
- basal: CK5,14,17
- myoepithelium: CK5,14,17,p63,alphaSMA.
Vet Pathol 43:424 (2006)
Canine mammary gland tumors, benign versus malignant:
Estrogen receptor (ER-alpha)?
ER-alpha benign > malignant
Bcl-2 benign = malignant
Ki-67 benign < malignant
TUNEL benign < malignant
(positive relationship between proliferation and apoptosis)
(negative correlation ERalpha and proliferation)
JCP 2006
E-cadherin expression in canine malignant mammary tumors:
Reduction of E-cadherin expression relates to:
1- tumor size?
2- ulceration?
3- fixation to skin or underlying tissue?
4- lymph node metastasis?
5- necrosis?
6- infiltrative growth?
7- histological type?
8- histological grade?
1 yes
2 yes
3 NO
4 yes
5 yes
6 yes
7 yes
8 NO
Solid tumors more frequently lacked expression and tubulopapillary tumors showed increased expression as compared with the other types.
JCP 182 (2006)
In canine mammary tumors, which of the following prognosticators are independent in a multivariate analysis:
The presence of estrogen receptor alpha
The presence of progesterone receptor
Tumor size
Lymph node status
Histologic grading
Intravascular growth
Tumor size
Histologic grading
Vet Pathol 42:200-212 (2005)
Maspin in mammargy gland of the dog:
Marker for which cells?
Maspin appears to be a very sensitive marker of the normal and neoplastic myoepithelium that, contrary to smooth muscle differentiation markers, does not stain stromal myofibroblasts.
(NOT correlated with malignancy)
Vet Pathol 42:250-257 (2005)
Expression of connexins 26 and 43 in canine neoplastic mammary glands:
Expression in malignant neoplasms?
Expression of E-cadherin in malignant neoplasms?
Gap junctions are composed of connexins.
Malignant neoplasms (verus normal, hyperplastic or benign neoplastic):
- fewer gap junction spots on the cell membranes
- increased cytoplasmic immunostaining (erratic localisation)
- reduced immunostaining of E-cadherin (the expression of E-cadherin is important for the transportation of connexins to cell membranes and in forming communicating gap junctions).
Vet Pathol 42:633-641 (2005)
Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in canine mammary carcinoma:
- IHC % positive?
- Anaplastic compared to adenocarcinomas?
- 56 % of carcinomas COX-2 +
- Anaplastic: higher COX-2 IHC positivity than adenocarcinomas.
Vet Pathol 42:776-780 (2005)
E-cadherin and beta-catenin changes how in malignant mammary tumors compared to normal?
Correlated to:
- survival?
- histologic invasiveness?
- mitotic index?
- MIB 1 index?
- AgNOR index?
E-cadherin reduced in 37%
beta-catenin reduced in 20%
(both reduced in 18%)
- did NOT correlate to survival, mitotic index, MIB 1 index, AgNOR index
(MIB 1 is an antibody to Ki-67)
- correlated to histologic invasiveness
Vet Pathol 42:781-787 (2005)
Erythropoietin receptor in canine mammary tumors?
EPOR: not in normal mamma.
Weak to moderate EPOR expression in dysplastic glands.
EPOR expression increases as lesions show an increasing malignant pattern.
Vet Pathol 42:837-840 (2005)
Which tumors in dogs overexpress COX-2?
- squamous cell carcinoma
- renal cell carcinoma
- transitional cell carcinoma
- intestinal cell carcinoma
- mammary carcinoma
JVDI 18:590-593 (2006)
Dog; anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia:
- which gene is affected?
- mode of inheritance?
- histologic features?
- other organs affected?
- ectodysplasin
- X-linked recessive
- absence of hair follicles
- apocrine and eccrine glands, teeth
Vet Derm 17:393-410 2006
Mexican hairless dog, Chinese crested dog, and Peruvian hairless dog:
- mode of inheritance of alopecia?
- histologic features?
- can be lethal in which breed?
- other organs affected?
- autosomal dominant
- aborted hair follicle plugs with cystic infundibular dilatation; condensed mesenchymal cells
- Chinese crested: homozygous lethal
- dental dysplasia
Vet Derm 17:393-410 2006
Trichorrhexis nodosa in dogs:
- which breed?
- histologic features?
- Golden Retriever
- normal hair follicles; hair shafts with regularly spaced nodular swellings
Vet Derm 17:393-410 2006
Black hair follicle dysplasia in dogs:
- mode of inheritance?
- areas of alopecia?
- histologic features?
- which disease has similar mode of inheritance and similar histologic features?
- autosomal recessive
- black coat areas only
- clumped (aggregated) melanosomes in cutaneous melanocytes; broken hair shafts
- similar: color dilution alopecia
Vet Derm 17:393-410 2006