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41 Cards in this Set

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What are the three stages of inflammatory response?
Stage 1 - Vascular
Stage 2 - Cellular Exudate
Stage 3 - Tissue Repair and Replacement
What things are principle infecting agents?
bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa
What type of immunity is acquired by the administration of Abs or anti-toxins in immune globulin?
artificial p. immunity
Exs: Gamma globulin inj. after Hep. A exposure
This type of immunity develops after birth - what is it?
Acquired immunity - can be either active or passive
What are the modes of transmission of infection?
Airborne, direct and indirect contact, vehicle transmission, vectorborne contact
What are three possible guess-timations for autoimmunity?
general predisposition
interaction with physical and chemical agents
abnormalities in immune cells
What term describes an invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens resulting in disease?
infection
What are the human body's portals of infection entry?
Non-intact skin
GU tract
Respiratory tract
Mucous membranes
GI tract
Which cells are the only one that can distinguish self from non-self cells?
immune systems cells
Immune fxn is most efficient at what ages?
when people are in their 20s and 30s - slowly declines with age
What is vectorborne contact?
infectious agents transmitted by animals and insects
Explain the two phases of the first stage of inflammation.
Phase 1 - immediate short term constriction of blood vessels, lasts seconds -> mins., may be so short that the person is unaware of the vasoconstriction
Phase 2 - increased blood flow, warmth, edema
What is the purpose of inflammation?
to neutralize, eliminate or destroy microorganisms that invade the body
What type of responses does inflammation cause?
visible and uncomfortable symptoms
What is natural a. immunity?
it is acquired by an infection from an Ag that leads to the production of Abs
Chxn Pox, Hep. A
The bone marrow is the source of what?
all blood cells, including immune system cells
What terms means when a microorganism is present, grows, and multiplies but does not cause a disease or infection?
Colonization
What term describes when an invading organism group is more virulent or more numerous than the immune system Abs?
Infectious disease
What is autoimmunity ?
when the body begins to make Abs against its own healthy cells
this inhibits normal cell fxn
leads to damage to body tissues by immune system
The bone marrow produces what kind of cells?
immature undifferentiated cells called stem cells
Leukocytes do what?
they protect the body from the effects of Ag invasions
Describe anaphylactic shock
Symptoms:
sneezing, itching at inj. site, rash/hives, apprehension/choking sensation, hypotension, weak rapid thready pulse, diaphoresis, dyspnea, pallor or cyanosis, pupillary dilation, LOC, seizure
Describe two types of immunity.
Active - when the body actively makes Abs in response to Ags
Passive - when Abs are "passed" from one person to another
When the body does not recognize or tolerate its own cells as itself, this is called...
auto-immunity
What is artificial a. immunity?
it is acquired by immunization with an Ab, such attenuated live virus vaccines
MMR, Polio, DPT, Hep. B
What term means the severe immune response to an invading Ag?
Anaphylaxis
What influences immune fxn changes during life?
nutritional status, environmental conditions, medications, the presence of disease, and age
What type of cells are included in non-self proteins and cells?
infected body cells, CA cells, all invading cells and microorganism
Immune system cells use defensive mechanisms against what?
only non-self proteins and cells
What two things are major defense mechanisms against disease and other invasions by microorganisms?
Inflammation and immunity
Name several ways that leukocytes protect the body.
1. Recognition of self v. non-self
2. Phagocytosis
3. Recognition of abnormal self cells
4. Lytic destruction of Ags and unhealthy self cells
5. Production of Abs
6. Production of hormones that stimulate increased formation of leukocytes in bone marrow
7. Production of hormones that increase leukocyte growth and activity
What is the Chain of Infection ?
Infectious agent -> Reservoir -> Portal of Exit -> Mode of transmission -> Portal of Entry -> Susceptible host
Define immunity.
When the host is no longer considered susceptible
What is natural p. immunity?
it is acquired by the transfer of maternal Abs to the fetus or neonate via placenta or breast milk
What term means the rejection of a beneficial foreign substance that is placed in the body?
Rejection Response
What is a pathogen?
any microorganism capable of producing disease
What type of protection does inflammation provide?
immediate but short term protection
What is an infection or disease?
the result of microorganisms multiplying and alterin normal tissue fxn
What type of immunity is present at birth?
Natural immunity
Define immunosuppression.
the depression of the immune system, caused by disease, injury, shock, radiation or drugs
What are common reservoirs of infection?
humans, animals, insects, food, water and formites